Injury patterns and crowd behaviour at mass gathering events

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Ranse J. (2013). Injury patterns and crowd behaviour at mass gathering events. Sex, Drugs, and Rock and Roll - St John Ambulance Australia (ACT), Canberra, ACT, 14th September.

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Injury patterns and crowd behaviour at mass gathering events

  1. 1. INJURY PATTERNS AND CROWD BEHAVIOUR AT MASS GATHERING EVENTS Jamie Ranse Assistant Professor University of Canberra www.jamieranse.com twitter.com/jamieranse youtube.com/jamieranse linkedin.com/in/jamieranse
  2. 2. • Definition • Conceptual model • Workload characteristics • Workload prediction • Event design • Event managers • Case study overview
  3. 3. definition Class Subclass Persons Resources Example Mass gathering Small 200 – 1,500 Local area Local fair Medium 1,500 – 10,000 Local area Local sports game Large 10,000 – 100,000 Local +/- State Concert Major mass gathering 100,000 – 250,000 State +/- Interstate Music festival Agricultural show Super mass gathering 250,000 – 500,000 State and Interstate Motor sports event Extreme mass gathering 500,000 – 1,000,00 National +/- international Religious festival Mega mass gathering 1,000,000+ National and International Olympics
  4. 4. conceptual model
  5. 5. workload characteristics • Other extreme events • Can we predict workload? temperature bounded or not ETOH / drug availability humidity participant numbers day / nightindoors / outdoors crowd behaviour • What factors influence workload / presentations? level of onsite care age of participants duration geography
  6. 6. workload characteristics and conceptual model
  7. 7. workload prediction • Why predict workload? • What to predict? – Patient presentation rate (PPR) 0.14 to 90/1,000 (majority 0.5 and 2.6/1,000) – Transport to hospital rate (TTHR) 0.01 to 0.55/1,000 – Referral to hospital rate 5% - 10% of PPR • How? – Predictive models – Historical prediction
  8. 8. event design • Crowd behaviour – Music festivals – Spaces • Patient access
  9. 9. event managers • Health service – What level of service do you need? – Health risk assessment
  10. 10. • Event managers – Overall risk management – Patient information: confidentiality v duty of care event managers
  11. 11. implications • Pre-ambulance (PPR) • Pre-hospital (TTHR)
  12. 12. implications • Pre-ambulance (PPR) • Pre-hospital (TTHR) • Emergency Department (RTHR)
  13. 13. implications • Pre-ambulance • Pre-hospital • Emergency Department • Hospital – surgery
  14. 14. case study
  15. 15. To understand the characteristics of people who present as patients to on-site health care at outdoor music festivals in Australia aim
  16. 16. • Retrospective review of patient report forms • 26 outdoor music festivals • Four different states of Australia • Minimum data set – Illness – Injury – Environmental – Mental Health design and setting
  17. 17. • 4950 presentations • Almost two thirds were female (n=3087, 62.4%) • The mean age of all patient presentations was 21.3 (±5.8) years • The majority of patients (n=3875, 78.3%) were ≤25 years of age demographics
  18. 18. • The majority of patient presentations (n=2766, 55.9%) presented with illness related concerns • The risk of illness was 1.7 times (OR=1.71; 95% CI 1.51-1.94; p<0.001) higher for females than males in the ≤25 year age group • Most common presenting problem was headache (n=1389, 52.9%). • Pain (n=264 10%), asthma (n=216 8.2%), and nausea and vomiting (n=211 8%) illness
  19. 19. • The risk of a female sustaining an injury was almost half (OR=0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62; p<0.001) that of males • The main types of injury presentations were superficial lacerations (n=281; 20.4%); sprain or strains (n=268; 19.2%), and head injuries (concussion) (n=168; 11.9%) • Crushing injuries; blisters and foreign bodies; external to eye was significantly higher for females than males injury
  20. 20. • Alcohol related presentations most common (n=250 32.8%) • Substance related (n=135 17.7%), • Combined alcohol and substance use (n=125 16.4%) • Heat exhaustion more prevalent for females (p=<0.001), while substance related presentations more prevalent for males (p=<0.001) environment
  21. 21. • Gender didn’t demonstrate a significant risk for mental health related presentations • 29 cases overall: average of one per event mental health
  22. 22. • Most patients returned to the event • Environmental-related category highest TTHR outcome
  23. 23. INJURY PATTERNS AND CROWD BEHAVIOUR AT MASS GATHERING EVENTS Jamie Ranse Assistant Professor University of Canberra www.jamieranse.com twitter.com/jamieranse youtube.com/jamieranse linkedin.com/in/jamieranse

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