6.1 canada 1960’s and_70's


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6.1 canada 1960’s and_70's

  1. 1. Canada in the 1960’s and 1970’s • The 1960’s was a decade of concentrated social change. Social movements of the 1960’s included: • Women’s liberation • Civil rights • Free love • Peace • Environmentalism • All of these movements shared a desire for the liberation of the individual. They created a counterculture of youth and freedom, that questioned the “status quo” of the “establishment”
  2. 2. Silent Spring: The birth of the environmental movement • • • • • Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published in 1962. It is widely credited with helping to launch the modern American environmental movement. The book documented the effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly on birds. Carson accused the chemical industry of spreading misinformation, and public officials of accepting industry claims without adequate oversight. The book argued that uncontrolled and unexamined pesticide use was harming and even killing not only animals and birds, but also humans. Its title was meant to evoke a spring season in which no bird songs could be heard, because they had all vanished as a result of pesticide abuse.
  3. 3. Greenpeace • • • • • • Greenpeace evolved from the peace movement and anti-nuclear protests in Vancouver, British Columbia, in the late 1960s and early 1970s. On September 15, 1971, the newly founded Don't Make a Wave Committee sent a chartered ship, Phyllis Cormack, renamed Greenpeace for the protest, from Vancouver to oppose United States testing of nuclear devices in Amchitka, Alaska. The Don't Make a Wave Committee later adopted the name Greenpeace. In a few years, Greenpeace spread to several countries and started to campaign on other environmental issues such as commercial whaling and toxic waste. In the late 1970s, the different regional Greenpeace groups formed Greenpeace International Greenpeace received international attention during the 1980s when the French intelligence agency bombed the Rainbow Warrior, one of the best-known vessels operated by Greenpeace, killing one individual. They also received recognition in the 80’s when in May of 1985, Greenpeace orchestrated 'Operation Exodus', the evacuation of about 300 Rongelap Atoll islanders whose home had been contaminated with nuclear fallout from a US nuclear test which had never been cleaned up and was still having severe health effects on the locals. Greenpeace has evolved into one of the largest environmental organizations in the world.
  4. 4. • I have a dream
  5. 5. Canada in the 1960’s • In the early 60’s Canada produced the world’s leading philosopher of communications Marshal McLuhan. • He observed that electronic media was becoming more important than print. • He was made famous by the phrase “ The medium is the message.” and said that the new types of media would ultimately create a “global village.” • He theorized that distinctive national identities would dissolve as the distances created by geography, succumbing to the instant communication provided by new technology. • The 1960’s certainly marked huge changes in the ways in which Canadian’s perceived themselves. • We obtained a new national symbol, we instated the official languages Act and we experienced a huge shift in our national morality
  6. 6. Canadian Artists and Writers of the 1960’s • • • • William Robertson Davies was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. He was one of Canada's best known and most popular authors Davies was the founding Master of Massey College, a graduate residential college associated with the University of Toronto. Jean Margaret Laurence, was a Canadian novelist and short story writer, one of the major figures in Canadian literature. She was also a founder of the Writers' Trust of Canada, a non-profit literary organization that seeks to encourage Canada's writing community. William Ormond Mitchell, better known as W.O. Mitchell was a Canadian writer and broadcaster. His "best-loved" novel is Who Has Seen the Wind (1947), which portrays life on the Canadian Prairies and sold almost a million copies in Canada. As a broadcaster, he is known for his radio series Jake and the Kid, which aired on CBC Radio between 1950 and 1956 and was also about life on the Prairies.
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • Connecting the Country: Megaprojects of the 50’s and 60’s The Trans-Canada Highway is a transcontinental federal-provincial highway system that travels through all ten provinces of Canada between its Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean coasts. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km (4,990 mi). Construction of the highway began in 1950, however the highway did not officially open until 1962 and was not complete until 1971. Canada's population was booming during the 1950s, and energy shortages were becoming problematic. A Canadian company TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. was incorporated in 1951 to undertake the construction of a natural gas pipeline across Canada. The financing of the project was split 50-50 between American and Canadian interests. In 1954 C.D. Howe forced two competing companies to work together, deciding against a partial American route they used an all-Canadian route This solution reflected problems encountered with the construction of the Interprovincial oil pipeline. Despite the speed of its construction, the line caused angry debate in Parliament, with the Opposition arguing that Canadians deserved consideration before American customers and that "the main pipeline carrying Canadian oil should be laid in Canadian soil".
  8. 8. Canada in the 1960’s: The new Flag and a pension plan • • • • • • In 1964 Canadians were involved in an argument over the Canadian flag, many were attached to the British Union Flag. However people who viewed themselves as Canadian, and not British, did not care for it. In 1963 Prime Minister Lester Pearson unveiled his idea for a new flag and by 1965, we had a brand new flag Lester B. Pearson established the Canadian Pension Plan in 1965. By the mid-1990s low contribution rate increase were not sufficient to keep up with Canada’s aging population. As a result the total CPP contribution rates for both employee and employer together were raised.
  9. 9. Vimy Memorial, France
  10. 10. • Awesome Canada Beaver of Amazingness
  11. 11. Canada in the 1960’s: Freedom of the individual • In the early and mid-60’s, the desire for freedom was expressed in long hair, casual dress, and loud rock and roll • The decade progressed into protest marches on behalf of peace, and the civil rights movement • The new philosophy set individuals above the authority of groups and what by many were considered outdated moral standards • Government was seen by many as the accomplice of business, instead of the protector of citizens and the environment
  12. 12. Teen Culture and the impact of the Baby boom generation • • • • • • • In the 1960’s young people became the largest demographic group as the baby boom generation entered their teen years. Youth-led revolutions in the 20th and 21st centuries attest to this fact. Organizations of young people, which were often based on a student identity, were crucial to the American Civil Rights Movement. These included organizations such as the Southern Student Organizing Committee, Students for a Democratic Society and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, whose role in sit-ins, protests, and other activities of the Civil Rights movement were crucial to its success. The Freedom Summer relied heavily on college students; hundreds of students engaged in registering African Americans to vote, teaching in "Freedom Schools“ The American protests in the Vietnam War were largely student-driven. Some scholars have claimed that the activism of youth during the Vietnam War was symbolic of a youth culture whose values were against those of mainstream American culture. In Canada similar protests and youth organizations developed to counter mainstream Canadian culture.
  13. 13. Canada in the 1960’s: Women • Women were ready for liberation. Feminism, became an important movement. • A dependable birth control pill, introduced in the early 1960’s made it possible for women to delay or avoid having children. This in turn made it possible for more women to compete with men in the business world. • Women’s groups campaigned for equal rights, equal opportunities in the job market and an end to discrimination based on sex. • Prime Minister Pearson set up of Royal Commission on the status of women, that was actually led by a woman, the first federal commission ever to be chaired by a woman. • In the R. v. Morgentaler case in 1988, Canada's abortion law was struck down by the Supreme Court using the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, by Henry Morgentaler a leading activist in Canada’s Free Choice movement
  14. 14. Irene Murdoch: Divorce law in Canada and the rights of women • • • • • • • Murdoch v. Murdoch [1975] was decision by the Supreme Court of Canada where the Court denied an abused farm wife any interest in the family farm. This case is most notable for the public outcry it created at the time Irene Murdoch, the wife of an Albertan farmer, submitted a claim for half the interest in the family ranch that was registered under the husband's name. The question put before the Court was whether there was an implied trust on behalf of the wife for all her years of labour on the farm. The Court upheld the trial judge's finding that the wife's labour was not beyond what was normally expected of a ranch wife and that since there was no financial contribution thus there could be no resulting trust. In Irene’s defense it was claimed that the Court did not need to examine intent in order to find a trust; rather a constructive trust based in equity could be found. Canadian feminists publicized the case across the country. In 1973, Irene Murdoch was paid her claim. It is thought that the case helped bring changes to family law in Canada.
  15. 15. Rosemary Brown • • • • • • • • In 1975, Rosemary Brown became the first black woman to run for the leadership of a Canadian federal party finishing a strong second in that year's New Democratic Party leadership convention. After departing politics, she became a Professor of women's studies at Simon Fraser University. In 1993, she was appointed Chief Commissioner of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, and served until 1996. In 1995, she was awarded the Order of British Columbia and in 1996 was named an Officer of the Order of Canada. Brown was sworn to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada as a member of the Canadian Security Intelligence Review Committee from 1993 to 1998. This board is the overseer for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, or CSIS. She also served on the Order of Canada Advisory Committee from 1999 until her death in 2003. She died of a heart attack on April 26, 2003 in Vancouver, British Columbia. Canada Post featured Brown on a Canadian postage stamp released on February 2, 2009.
  16. 16. David Suzuki • • • • • • David Suzuki has been known for his TV and radio series and books about nature and the environment since the mid-1970s. He is best known as host of the popular and long-running CBC Television science magazine, The Nature of Things, seen in over forty nations. He is also well known for criticizing governments for their lack of action to protect the environment. A long time activist to reverse global climate change, Suzuki co-founded the David Suzuki Foundation in 1990, to work "to find ways for society to live in balance with the natural world that sustains us." The Foundation's priorities are: oceans and sustainable fishing, climate change and clean energy, sustainability, and Suzuki's Nature Challenge. He is a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 2004, David Suzuki was selected as the greatest living Canadian in a CBC poll.
  17. 17. EXPO ‘67 • • • • The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was the general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967. It is considered to be the most successful World's Fair of the 20th century, with the most attendees to that date and 62 nations participating. It also set the single-day attendance record for a world's fair. Expo 67 was Canada's main celebration during its centennial year. The fair was originally intended to be held in Moscow, to help the Soviet Union celebrate the Russian Revolution's 50th anniversary; however, for various reasons, the Soviets decided to cancel, and Canada was awarded it in late 1962.
  18. 18. Canada in the 1960’s: Bilingualism • In 1963 Prime Minister Pearson appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. • The report found that Quebecois were alienated from the rest of Canada, partially because the French language was not considered equal to English throughout the country. • When Pierre Trudeau Became Prime Minister in 1968, he passed the Official Languages Act in 1969, this gave equal status to English and French officially making Canada a bilingual country. • Canada is a member of The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), known informally and more commonly as La Francophonie (or, more simply, Francophonie) an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones; and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture. • The term francophonie (with a lowercase "f") also refers to the global community of French-speaking peoples • In a majority of member states, French is not the predominant native language. The prerequisite for admission to the Francophonie is not the degree of French usage in the member countries, but a prevalent presence of French culture and language in the member country's identity.
  19. 19. Canada in the 1960’s: The Quiet Revolution • More than any other Canadian province, Québec changed rapidly during the 1960’s. • These changes were so profound that this period is known in Québec as the “Revolution Tranquille” or the Quiet Revolution. The period is called this because though the changes were radical, they were achieved with out violence.
  20. 20. The Quiet Revolution • • • • • The Quiet Revolution began with the Liberal provincial government of Jean Lesage, who was elected in 1960, shortly after the death of Premier Maurice Duplessis, whose reign was known by some as the Grande Noirceur (Great Darkness), but viewed by conservatives as epitomizing a religiously and culturally pure Quebec. In many ways, Duplessis's death in 1959, quickly followed by the sudden death of his successor Paul Sauvé, served as a trigger for the Quiet Revolution. Campaigning under the slogans Il faut que ça change (Things have to change) and Maîtres chez nous (Masters of our own house) Jean Lesage was elected within a year of Duplessis's death. It is generally accepted that the revolution ended before the October Crisis of 1970, but Quebec's society has continued to change dramatically since then, notably with the rise of the sovereignty movement, seen through the election of the Separatist Parti Québécois (first in 1976), and the formation of a separatist political party representing Quebec on the federal level, the Bloc Québécois (formed in 1991), as well as the 1980 and 1995 Sovereignty Referendums Prior to the 1960s, the government of Quebec was controlled by conservative Maurice Duplessis, leader of the Union Nationale party. Electoral fraud and corruption were commonplace in Quebec.
  21. 21. “Vive le Quebec Libre” French President Charles de Gaulle 1967
  22. 22. Canada in the 1960’s: The Quiet Revolution Continued • Economy: the Quiet Revolution sought to establish a stronger French presence in the economy of Québec. • Social Services: They wanted to ensure they had the same standard of social services as other provinces • Education: taken from the churches and turned over to a provincial system. • More Autonomy: Québec wanted co-operative federalism • The Que • Unfortunately none of these steps would help Canada avoid the crisis between Québec and the rest of Canada that would occur during the October Crisis, brought on by the actions of the FLQ
  23. 23. The FLQ: Front de Liberation du Quebec: Kidnapped! • On October 5, 1970 members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross the British trade commissioner from his home. The FLQ sent messages to the media saying that, they would kill Cross unless the government released 23 people who were in prison for terrorist acts. • As a concession to the kidnappers the government allowed the FLQ manifesto to be broadcast publicly. • The manifesto argued that in Quebec the English minority held all positions of power and influence, while the French majority was disadvantaged. • Although they disagreed with the FLQ’s tactics, many people agreed with its analysis of the situation in
  24. 24. FLQ Flag
  25. 25. Montreal, 1970
  26. 26. Kidnapped continued • The Quebec government refused to release any prisoners. Instead it offered to allow the kidnappers safe passage to another country if they released Cross. • Minutes after the government made this announcement another cell of the FLQ abducted Pierre Laporte, the Quebec minister of labor, while he was playing on his lawn with his children. • Laporte sent the government a letter pleading for his life. CBC report of Laporte’s letter
  27. 27. The War Measures Act • On 16 October, the federal government stated that because of a state of “apprehended insurrection” in Quebec, it was invoking the War Measures Act. • This gives the authorities the power to arrest without warrant anyone suspected of being connected to the FLQ. • Over the next few days, hundreds of people were jailed. (In the end, only 20 people were actually convicted of any crime.)
  28. 28. Protest of the War Measures Act at Brandon University during the October Crisis
  29. 29. • Trudeau Speaks about the FLQ Crisis
  30. 30. The End of the Crisis • Pierre Laporte’s body was discovered in the trunk of a car. • Police found Cross, who was released after 59 days. • In exchange for his release, five kidnappers received safe passage to Cuba. • Four men were arrested; Paul Rose, his brother Jacques, Francis Simard, and Bernard Lortie. They were convicted of Pierre Laporte’s murder • In January 1971 the army withdrew from Quebec.
  31. 31. French/English Relationships Today • Although the FLQ failed in it’s purpose to cause Québec to separate, the desire to separate remains strong in some segments of Quebec society. • The divisions between French and English in Canada continues today • This can be seen in the Bloc Québécois one of the most powerful political parties in Canada today.
  32. 32. Keep that Funk Alive!
  33. 33. Pierre Trudeau and Trudeaumania • Trudeaumania was the nickname given in early 1968 to the excitement generated by Pierre Trudeau's leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada. • Trudeaumania continued during the his first federal election campaign and during Trudeau's early years as Prime Minister of Canada. • Many young people in Canada at this time, especially young women, were influenced by the 1970s counterculture and identified with Trudeau, a nonconformist who was relatively young. • They were dazzled by his charm and good looks, and a large fan base was established throughout the country • Trudeau had once sympathized with Marxists and had spent time in the democratic socialist Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, and many of his fans were attracted to his socially liberal stances (he legalized homosexuality and created more flexible divorce laws as Justice Minister under Lester B. Pearson). • Trudeau was also admired for his laid-back attitude and his celebrity relationships; he was described as a modern, hip and happening person, he and as a swinger. • In 2004, he was voted the third-Greatest Canadian by CBC viewers, after Terry Fox and Tommy Douglas.
  34. 34. The “Just Society” • • • • • • • • • Pierre Trudeau used this term to illustrate his vision for Canada He first used the term in the 1968, at the height of "Trudeaumania“ Unlike the "Great Society" of US President Lyndon B. Johnson, the label Just Society was not attached to a specific set of reforms, but rather applied to all Trudeau's policies, from multiculturalism to the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Trudeau defined a just society before becoming the Prime Minister of Canada as: The Just Society will be one in which the rights of minorities will be safe from the whims of intolerant majorities. The Just Society will be one in which those regions and groups which have not fully shared in the country's affluence will be given a better opportunity. The Just Society will be one where such urban problems as housing and pollution will be attacked through the application of new knowledge and new techniques. The Just Society will be one in which our Indian and Inuit populations will be encouraged to assume the full rights of citizenship through policies which will give them both greater responsibility for their own future and more meaningful equality of opportunity. The Just Society will be a united Canada, united because all of its citizens will be actively involved in the development of a country where equality of opportunity is ensured and individuals are permitted to fulfill themselves in the fashion they judge best.
  35. 35. CIDA • • • The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was formed in 1968 by the Canadian government under Pierre Trudeau. CIDA administers foreign aid programs in developing countries, and operates in partnership with other Canadian organizations in the public and private sectors as well as other international organizations. Its mandate is to "support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and contribute to a more secure, equitable, and prosperous world."
  36. 36. The Foreign Investment Review Agency • • • • • • The Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) was established by Pierre Trudeau in 1973 to ensure that the foreign acquisition and establishment of businesses in Canada was beneficial to the country. The 1957 report of the Gordon Commission (formally titled Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects) firmly planted foreign investment on the political agenda. In 1968 Watkins report (known formally as Foreign Ownership and the Structure of Canadian Industry), called for a national policy capable of handling Canada’s interests in the age of the multinational corporation. The FIRA was placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce. Takeovers were assessed based on their contribution to job creation, Canadian participation in management, competition with existing industries, new technology, and compatibility with federal and provincial economic policies. When Prime Minister Brian Mulroney came to office in 1985, the agency was renamed Investment Canada and its mandate drastically reduced.