From Moscow to Berlin
• At the start of 1945 Soviet (Russian) troops
were beginning to push back through Poland
and Czechoslovakia towards Germany.
• They were just 60 miles outside of Berlin by
The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan
were carried out by the US at the end of World War II in 1945.
The two events are the only use of nuclear weapons during war.
Following a firebombing campaign that destroyed many Japanese cities,
the Allies prepared for an invasion of Japan.
The war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, but the Pacific War continued.
Together with the United Kingdom, the Republic of China and the United
States called on Japan to surrender threatening "prompt and utter
destruction". The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum.
By August 1945, the Allied Manhattan Project using Canadian uranium
had developed and tested atomic bombs, and the US Boeing B-29
Superfortress that could deliver them
The Atomic bombs were dropped with the approval of President Harry S.
The Little Boy atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on
August 6, 1945, followed by a Fat Man bomb on the city of Nagasaki on
• The Yalta conference was held between the Big Three (the
US, Great Britain and the USSR) in February 1945
• At the Yalta Conference they discussed how to end WWII.
• Yalta represents the first discussion of a new peace-keeping
body, the United Nations.
• Other terms of the wars end such as the terms regarding
Poland were discussed.
• At Yalta they decided that Poland would be given territory,
free elections and be vacated by the Soviets.
– But the Soviets did not plan on moving.
Death of the Fuhrer
• On April 29th Hitler married his fiancé Eva
Braun in his personal bunker.
• The next day they both committed suicide.
• There has been much
speculation around the
Berlin is Captured
• In the Spring of 1945 Berlin is captured by the Allies.
• Hitler had called on anyone willing to defend the city
to go to the death.
• On May 7th Germany had surrendered all its
territories. The day after (May 8th) became known as
VE-Day (Victory of Europe).
• As we remember, Japan surrendered in the
September following in VJ-Day.
• The allies split up Germany into four spheres of
• The United Nations is established
Europe In Ruins: Introduction of
the Marshall Plan
• After WWII European economies were in shambles
as they had borrowed so much money from the US
and had taken so much damage over the last 6 years.
• The Soviets were sceptical of the western countries
and refused to move out of their captured territories
including parts of Poland, Finland and Germany.
• In 1947, the US comes out with the Marshall plan to
help put money back into the European economy.
– Soviet refused to participate in the agreement.
The Split That Starts The Cold War
• The US had not formally recognized the USSR until
1933 and both sides questioned the others
intentions during WWII.
• Stalin distrusted the western powers believing they
had purposefully delayed opening up the second
front in Europe.
• The US and the Russians were by far the largest
‘super’ powers in the post WWII world. It just so
happened they also had opposing economic and
political views – Capitalism vs. Communism &
Democracy vs. Totalitarianism.
• This division of political and economic ideals would
be the conflict that drove the series of
confrontations and posturing known historically as
NATO & The Warsaw Pact
• Tensions grew and soon when the western powers
tried to give Germany back to the people the Soviets
• The US created NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation) in 1949 in order to unite and protect
the western powers.
• In 1955 the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact which
joined it and eastern European countries together.
– Hungary tried to resist and attempted to hold a revolution
but they were invaded by the Soviet Union and the west
refused to come to their aid, Hungary was forcibly
included in the Warsaw Pact .
• The World was officially split into 2 camps. The Cold
War had begun.
The Purpose of the UN
1. To keep peace among nations
2. To increase co-operation between nations
3. To defend Human rights
4. To improve the living conditions of people
everywhere in the world
5. The U.N. sponsors a wide variety of
agencies that carry out legal, economic
and humanitarian work around the world
The UN expanded its scope to developing countries after 1951.
The Charter of the UN: The preamble that follows outlines the general
purpose and intent of the UN Charter
We the peoples of the United Nations determined
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has
brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person,
in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from
treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
And for these ends
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force
shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social
advancement of all peoples,
Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims
International Declaration of Human Rights in the UN Charter
A summary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1. Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way.
2. Everyone is equal despite differences in skin colour, sex, religion, language for
3. Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety.
4. No one has the right to treat you as a slave nor should you make anyone your slave.
5. No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you.
6. Everyone has the right to be treated equally by the law.
7. The law is the same for everyone, it should be applied in the same way to all.
8. Everyone has the right to ask for legal help when their rights are not respected.
9. No one has the right to imprison you unjustly or expel you from your own country.
10. Everyone has the right to a fair and public trial.
11. Everyone should be considered innocent until guilt is proved.
12. Every one has the right to ask for help if someone tries to harm you, but no-one
can enter your home, open your letters or bother you or your family without a good
13. Everyone has the right to travel as they wish.
14. Everyone has the right to go to another country and ask for protection if they are
being persecuted or are in danger of being persecuted.
15. Everyone has the right to belong to a country. No one has the right to prevent you
from belonging to another country if you wish to.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Continued
16. Everyone has the right to marry and have a family.
17. Everyone has the right to own property and possessions.
18. Everyone has the right to practice and observe all aspects of their own religion and
change their religion if they want to.
19. Everyone has the right to say what they think and to give and receive information.
20. Everyone has the right to take part in meetings and to join associations in a peaceful way.
21. Everyone has the right to help choose and take part in the government of their country.
22. Everyone has the right to social security and to opportunities to develop their skills.
23. Everyone has the right to work for a fair wage in a safe environment and to join a trade
24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure.
25. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living and medical help if they are ill.
26. Everyone has the right to go to school.
27. Everyone has the right to share in their community's cultural life.
28. Everyone must respect the 'social order' that is necessary for all these rights to be
29. Everyone must respect the rights of others, the community and public property.
30. No one has the right to take away any of the rights in this declaration.
The Security Council
• The UN is dominated by the Security Council.
• Any military action must be approved by the Security Council.
• The Security Council consists of permanent and nonpermanent rotating members
• The permanent members of the Security Council consist of
the USA, Russia (Soviet Union during the Cold War), China,
Britain and France.
• Each of the permanent members has the right to veto any
proposed military action. This obviously was a problem during
the cold war when the ideologies of the US and the Soviets
were mutually exclusive.
Organizations sponsored by the UN
• The World Health Organization (W.H.O)
battles global health problems
• United Nations International Children's
Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Originally,
responsible for assisting child welfare in
countries devastated by the Second World
• Expanded its scope to developing countries
• The United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) works
to improve education standards and
promote cultural activities