Central Powers Collapse
• By the summer of 1918 with the Americans now
fully in the war and Germany were struggling to
keep up the conflict.
• Germany made one final push in Northern France
which resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.
• During the last “Hundred Days” of the war
Canadians led a number of successful campaigns.
End Of The War Timeline
• January 1918: Wilson’s 14 points made public
– More about this in the USA/USSR and Events notes
3 March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
-More about this later too
11 November 1918: Armistice signed
18 January 1919: Paris Peace Conference convened
(this is the meeting where they sign the Treaty of
• 28 June 1919: Treaty of Versailles signed
The Results Of World War I
• The retreat of the German army after it’s defeat caused
political upheaval in Germany and Austria-Hungary. The result
was widespread anarchy and revolution. Ultimately this led to
the rise of Fascism in Europe
• The Austro-Hungarian empire dissolved into new states.
• The Russian and Ottoman empires disintegrated.
• The Kaiser of Germany abdicated and went into exile, and
Germany became a republic.
• The War had cost approximately 10 million dead and 21
million wounded. It caused mass extermination of a
• Financial costs were estimated at $330 billion.
• WWI redrew the maps of Europe and the Middle East
Architects of the Treaty of
• Georges Clemenceau: Prime Minister of France from 1917 to
• He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of
Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
• Nicknamed "Père la Victoire" (Father Victory) or "Le Tigre"
• He demanded Germany's payment of large sums for
• David Lloyd George is best known as the British Prime
Minister through the First World War.
• He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919
that reordered Europe after the Great War.
Treaty of Versailles
• Leaders from the various powers met to discuss
the terms of a lasting peace.
• The most important terms included:
– Germany accepting responsibility for the conflict.
– Germany’s territory was reduced significantly
See next slide
– German forces were restricted in what they were
allowed to make and do (especially concerning the
military and industrialization see slide 7 )
Territorial losses for Germany
• The following land was taken away from Germany and given
to other European powers:
• Alsace-Lorraine (to France)
• Eupen and Malmedy (to Belgium)
• Northern Schleswig (to Denmark)
• Hultschin (to Czechoslovakia)
• West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
• The Saar, Danzig and Memel under the control of the League
• The League of Nations also took Germany's overseas colonies.
• Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of
• Some was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and
Latvia. Poland also received some land from the Treaty of
Military Losses for Germany in The Treaty
Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men
The army was not allowed tanks
Germany was not allowed to have an air force
Germany’s navy was limited to 6 Capital naval ships and
• The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River
Rhine was made into a DMZ.
• No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this
• The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the
west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
• The loss of industrial territory were
deliberately done to hamper attempts by
Germany to rebuild her economy.
• Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in
particular was a vital economic loss.
• Germany was also forbidden to unite with
Austria to form one super state, in an attempt
to keep her economic potential to a minimum.
The War Guilt Clause
Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war.
Clause 231 - the infamous War Guilt Clause stated that:
As Germany was responsible for starting the Germany
was, responsible for all the damage caused by the War.
Therefore, Germany had to pay for the war, in the form of
Most of the money from reparations was supposed to go
to France and Belgium to pay for damage
Payment could be in kind or cash.
The actual amount owed was to be determined later.
The Germans were told to write a blank cheque which the
Allies would cash when it suited them.
If they refused they Allies threatened a renewal of full scale
Wilson’s 14 Points
• Was against financial compensation from Germany to
France, Britain, etc.
• Suggested the return of land to the major powers who
• Did not put sanctions on the Central powers.
• Countries should be allowed to grow without restriction
• If Wilson’s 14 points were excepted we might have been
able to avoid World War II.
Basics of the 14 points
1. No more secret treaties
2. Countries must seek to reduce their weapons and
their armed forces
3. National self-determination should allow people of
the same nationality to govern themselves and one
nationality should not have the power to govern
4. All countries should belong to the League of
Nations and provide collective security to each
other through their membership in the League.
World War I in 11 minutes
The League of Nations
The League of Nations was founded as a result of the Paris Peace
Conference that ended the First World War.
It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to
maintain world peace.
Its primary goals, included preventing wars through collective security
settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
Other issues included international labour conditions, just treatment of
native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health,
prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
1918 Flu Pandemic: The Spanish
The 1918 flu pandemic was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic
It infected people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and
the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million of them
Estimates of the death toll rang from between 1 percent to 3 to 5 percent
of the world's population.
This makes the Flu Pandemic one of the deadliest natural disasters in
To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness
and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States