2.6 end of the_war_website


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2.6 end of the_war_website

  1. 1. The End of the War
  2. 2. Central Powers Collapse • By the summer of 1918 with the Americans now fully in the war and Germany were struggling to keep up the conflict. • Germany made one final push in Northern France which resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. • During the last “Hundred Days” of the war Canadians led a number of successful campaigns.
  3. 3. End Of The War Timeline • January 1918: Wilson’s 14 points made public – More about this in the USA/USSR and Events notes • • • • 3 March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk -More about this later too 11 November 1918: Armistice signed 18 January 1919: Paris Peace Conference convened (this is the meeting where they sign the Treaty of Versailles) • 28 June 1919: Treaty of Versailles signed
  4. 4. The Results Of World War I • The retreat of the German army after it’s defeat caused political upheaval in Germany and Austria-Hungary. The result was widespread anarchy and revolution. Ultimately this led to the rise of Fascism in Europe • The Austro-Hungarian empire dissolved into new states. • The Russian and Ottoman empires disintegrated. • The Kaiser of Germany abdicated and went into exile, and Germany became a republic. • The War had cost approximately 10 million dead and 21 million wounded. It caused mass extermination of a generation. • Financial costs were estimated at $330 billion. • WWI redrew the maps of Europe and the Middle East
  5. 5. Architects of the Treaty of Versailles • Georges Clemenceau: Prime Minister of France from 1917 to 1920. • He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. • Nicknamed "Père la Victoire" (Father Victory) or "Le Tigre" (The Tiger) • He demanded Germany's payment of large sums for reparations. • David Lloyd George is best known as the British Prime Minister through the First World War. • He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the Great War.
  6. 6. Treaty of Versailles • Leaders from the various powers met to discuss the terms of a lasting peace. • The most important terms included: – Germany accepting responsibility for the conflict. – Germany’s territory was reduced significantly See next slide – German forces were restricted in what they were allowed to make and do (especially concerning the military and industrialization see slide 7 )
  7. 7. Territorial losses for Germany • The following land was taken away from Germany and given to other European powers: • Alsace-Lorraine (to France) • Eupen and Malmedy (to Belgium) • Northern Schleswig (to Denmark) • Hultschin (to Czechoslovakia) • West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland) • The Saar, Danzig and Memel under the control of the League of Nations • The League of Nations also took Germany's overseas colonies. • Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. • Some was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. Poland also received some land from the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
  8. 8. Military Losses for Germany in The Treaty of Versailles • • • • Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men The army was not allowed tanks Germany was not allowed to have an air force Germany’s navy was limited to 6 Capital naval ships and no submarines. • The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a DMZ. • No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. • The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
  9. 9. Financial Losses • The loss of industrial territory were deliberately done to hamper attempts by Germany to rebuild her economy. • Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss. • Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one super state, in an attempt to keep her economic potential to a minimum.
  10. 10. The War Guilt Clause Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. Clause 231 - the infamous War Guilt Clause stated that: • • • • • • • As Germany was responsible for starting the Germany was, responsible for all the damage caused by the War. Therefore, Germany had to pay for the war, in the form of reparations. Most of the money from reparations was supposed to go to France and Belgium to pay for damage Payment could be in kind or cash. The actual amount owed was to be determined later. The Germans were told to write a blank cheque which the Allies would cash when it suited them. If they refused they Allies threatened a renewal of full scale war.
  11. 11. Wilson’s 14 Points • Was against financial compensation from Germany to France, Britain, etc. • Suggested the return of land to the major powers who lost it. • Did not put sanctions on the Central powers. • Countries should be allowed to grow without restriction (including Germany). • If Wilson’s 14 points were excepted we might have been able to avoid World War II.
  12. 12. Basics of the 14 points 1. No more secret treaties 2. Countries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forces 3. National self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another 4. All countries should belong to the League of Nations and provide collective security to each other through their membership in the League. World War I in 11 minutes
  13. 13. The League of Nations • • • • • The League of Nations was founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues included international labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
  14. 14. 1918 Flu Pandemic: The Spanish Flu • • • • • The 1918 flu pandemic was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic It infected people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million of them Estimates of the death toll rang from between 1 percent to 3 to 5 percent of the world's population. This makes the Flu Pandemic one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States