Key knowledge 4.1.3

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Key knowledge 4.1.3

  1. 1. Comparing health status of developing countries to Australia Unit 4 Outcome 1 Dt Pt 3 Ch 8.2 p. 272 - 277
  2. 2. Unit 4 Global Health Key Knowledge 4.1.3 Similarities and differences in health status and human development between developing countries and Australia in relation to morbidity, mortality, life expectancy, burden of disease & Human Development Index
  3. 3. Life expectancy: an indication of how long a person can expect to live; it is the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change. (p272) Australia Developing Countries  Higher Life Expectancy  M = 79 F= 84 (2006)  HALE – M = 71 F = 74 (2002) Due to:  Decent std of living  Adequate Education  Advances in Medical technologies  Access to health care  Assessing causes of death  Higher Mortality Strata of the country the lower Life Expectancy  African Region M = 50 F = 52 (‘06)  HALE M = 40 F = 42 (2002) Due to:  Lack of sanitation  Lack of nutritious and safe foods  Lack of clean and safe water supply
  4. 4. A Tale of Two Girls  This feature contrasts the lives of two baby girls, one born in Japan and one born in Sierra Leone where the average life expectancy for women differs by 50 years.
  5. 5. Under 5 Mortality Rate: is the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age per 1,000 live births (p273) Australia Developing Countries  Low U5MR  6 per 1,000 live births Due to:  Advances in medical technologies  Access to appropriate maternal and child healthcare  Sanitation, clean safe water and hygienic conditions  Immunisation  Health Knowledge of mothers  Nutritional health of mothers  Income and food availability  Safety of child’s environment  Development and health of child – immune systems more developed  High U5MR  Sierra Leone – 262 per 1,000 live births Due to:  Communicable & preventable diseases (↓availability of immunisation, antibiotics)  Malnutrition – mother / child  Complications during birth, premature or low birth weight  Under developed immune systems  Lack of education  Lack of basic resources – safe water, hygienic living conditions, adequate shelter, poverty, insecticide treated mosquito nets to prevent malaria
  6. 6. Infant Mortality Rate: refers to the number of deaths that occur in the first year of life. It is reported by the actual number of deaths per 1,000 live births Australia Developing Countries  Low Infant Mortality  5 per 1,000 live births (‘07) Due to same reasons as U5MR - ie  Advances in medical technologies  Access to appropriate maternal and child healthcare  Sanitation, clean safe water and hygienic conditions  Immunisation  Health Knowledge of mothers  High Infant Mortality  Sierra Leone – 1 in 155 per 1,000 live births (‘07) Due to same reasons as U5MR - ie  Communicable & preventable diseases (↓availability of immunisation, antibiotics)  Malnutrition – mother / child  Under developed immune systems  Lack of education  Lack of basic resources – safe water, hygienic living conditions, adequate
  7. 7. Leading Cause of Under 5 Mortality Australia Developing Countries  Injury & poisoning  Neoplasm's - cancers  Diseases of the nervous system  Congenital malformations Are associated with malnutrition and preventable causes  Acute respiratory infections – pneumonia  Diarrhoeal diseases  Prematurity & low birth weight  Neonatal infections  Birth asphyxia and trauma  Malaria  African Region – HIV/AIDS  Measles also significant
  8. 8. Maternal Mortality: refers to the number of deaths of women due to pregnancy or childbirth-related complications Australia Developing Countries Low Maternal Mortality - 1 per 13,000 live births Due to:  Women receiving highly skilled attendance at the birth of their child  Excellent antenatal care  Access to immunizations  Good nutrition, hygiene and adequate rest  Potential complications are diagnosed and treated  Paid maternal leave High Maternal Mortality. - Sierra Leone – 1 in 8 at risk of Maternal Mortality Due to:  Complications  Lack of trained medical staff at birth  Lack of antenatal care  Poor nutrition  Lack of clean and safe water supply.  Working long hours before and after birth  Lack of and access to, healthcare services (i.e. hospitals, abortions, family planning)  Pregnancy at a young age  Gender inequality – lack of education  Poverty – lack of money for care and treatmentView: YouTube clip ‘No Woman Should Die Giving Birth: Maternal Mortality in Sierra Leone’
  9. 9. Mortality: number of deaths caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factors (p274) Australia Developing Countries  Ischemic Heart diseases  Cerebrovascular disease  Lung Cancer  Lower respiratory infections  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Alzheimer and other dementias  Colon and rectum cancers  Diabetes Mellitus  Prostrate Cancer  Breast Cancer  Lower Respiratory Infections  Coronary Heart Disease  Diarrheal diseases  HIV / AIDS  Cerebrovascular disease  Infections and parasitic diseases – lung infections, TB, Malaria
  10. 10. Can you?  Identify the leading causes of death for each country – are they communicable or non- communicable?  Describe the mortality profile of Australia  Describe the mortality profile of Zimbabwe  Describe key differences in mortality profiles  Explain why there are significant differences between the two countries  Identify some similarities between the two countries mortality profile.
  11. 11. Morbidity: Ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group. Much of the data on morbidity is reflected by the burden of disease, however this also includes mortality rates Burden of disease: a measure of the impact of diseases and injuries; specifically it measures the gap between the current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. It is measured in a unit called DALY. YLL + YLD = DALY 1 DALY is one lost year of healthy life
  12. 12. Burden of Disease (P275) Australia Developing Countries Leading causes of disease, injury and disability include:  Ischemic Heart Disease  Stroke  Depression  Lung Cancer  Dementia  Diabetes Mellitus  Asthma  Osteoarthritis  Road Trauma Leading causes of injury, disease and disability is:  HIV / AIDS (Africa)  Lower Respiratory Infections (Africa)  Diarrhoeal diseases (Africa)  Malnutrition  Infectious diseases  Reproductive ill health (women only)  Landmines  Mental Illness Refer to your fact sheets
  13. 13. HIV/AIDS  Serious social, economic & medical issue in many developing countries  Significant cause of mortality & morbidity  HIV - Human immuno-deficiency virus  Causes damage to the body’s immune system, and usually results in AIDS - acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome Once infected, a person can pass virus onto others  View: Youtube clip - The Gift
  14. 14. Effects of HIV/AIDS More susceptible to illnesses such as:  Respiratory infections - TB  Diarrhoea  Fever  Weight loss  Cancer Other effects?  Loss of income  Cant afford medical attention  Shame/guilt  Can’t provide basic needs to family  Isolation from community
  15. 15. Questions: HIV/AIDS  Read page277 -- HIV/AIDS , answer the following questions  What is HIV/AIDS?  Who is at greatest risk of contracting the disease and why?  Which classification of country has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS?  How is HIV/AIDS transmitted?  How can it be treated?  HIV/AIDS is one of the factors contributing to ongoing poverty in developing countries – Explain  What infections are individuals with HIV/AIDS
  16. 16. Future in Global Health Due to a small percentage of wealthy people within populations, changes in lifestyles behaviours (diet, smoking, alcohol), improvements in education, safe water, sanitation and immunisation will bring about changes in the burden of disease experienced. Some countries will experience a ‘double burden of disease’. Some causes that are already prevalent in Developed countries will become more prevalent in developing countries. Communicable disease to decrease and non-communicable to increase and LE to increase. DALYS 2004 2030 Lower Respiratory Disease Unipolar Depression Diarrhoeal disease Ischemic heart Disease Depression Road Traffic Accidents Mortality 2004 2030 Ischemic heart Disease Ischemic heart Disease Cerebrovascular disease Cerebrovascular disease Lower Respiratory Disease Chronic Pulmonary Disease
  17. 17. Home work tasks  Complete Test your knowledge 1 - 6  Apply your knowledge 7 – 13  Data Analysis Handout Tasks

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