PROMOTING HEALTHY EATINGKey Knowledge 3.2.5The role of the Australian Government in promoting healthy eating,through:•The information provided by nutrition surveys and how it is used•The purpose of Nutrient Reference Values to guide dietary intake•The Australian Guide to Health Eating and the Dietary Guidelines•Legislation developed by Food Standards Australia andNew Zealand (FSANZ)
WHY THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT HAS AROLE IN PROMOTING HEALTH EATING Major role in making Australia a healthier nation – promoting healtheating is a preventative measure for future health of Australians(reducing the prevalence of diet-related diseases, especially invulnerable groups i.e. Indigenous Australians) Decrease the financial burden of healthcare costs -This will reduceboth direct and indirect costs associated with nutrition relatedillnesses/diseases (NHPAs) Improve the health and well-being of population groups, especiallythe nutritional status of vulnerable groups (indigenous Australians,Rural & Remote, low SES Australians) Educating and providing accurate information regarding healthissues – individuals can make informed decisions
ROLE OF AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT INPROMOTING HEALTHY EATING:Governments have a key role in educating andinforming the community about healthy eating and nutritionHow Do Governments Promote healthy eating? Provision of policy related to healthy eating practises Programs and health promotion initiatives - educate Research/Nutrition Surveys – collection of data Development and publication of strategies/guidelines andresources – i.e. NRV, Dietary Guidelines & The AustralianGuide to Healthy Eating to improve the health status ofAustralians (educate) Regulating food through legislation in order to ensure a safeand quality-controlled food supply – food labelling laws
FOOD CONSUMPTION & NUTRITION SURVEYS Aim of food consumption surveys is to monitor andassess food consumption and related behaviour of apopulation. Survey data can be collected by Food diary and records, food list recalls, food accounts & telephone surveys• Why: Relevant and current information is essential forfood regulators and health professionals to understandand address the health, nutritional status and wellbeingof the Australian population• Information is used to develop food & nutrition relatedprograms & public policy development
WHAT INFORMATION IS PROVIDED BYNUTRITION SURVEYS? Assessment of dietary intakes Dietary trends and food consumption patterns Nutritional status of various population groups Diet-related diseases/conditions (incidence & prevalenceof these diseases /conditions)
USES OF NUTRITION AND FOODCONSUMPTION SURVEYSOverall objective – is to provide food and nutrient data toassist with the implementation of Australia’s ‘Food andNutrition Policy’ Development of policies for food assistance Directions for food regulators ie: food labelling and foodsafety programs Nutrition education programs – new Highlight population groups that may have specialrequirements or who are suffering particular nutritionalinadequacies => develop targeted strategies/policesspecifically to target certain population groups
USES OF NUTRITION SURVEY’S CONT... Enables the revision of National Health Goals and Targets Benchmarks are able to be set for future measurementsand comparisons of changes over time Assess progress of achievement towards improving healtheating Evaluation and conclusions about the effectiveness ofcurrent health eating promotion strategies can be made –ie. Implementation of dietary guidelines / Review Provision of data to inform government policy Increased knowledge about consumers for the foodindustry – development of new products, fortified foods
LIMITATIONS Data is a ‘snap shot’ - only relates to a 24-hour period andis not reflective of overall food consumption. Inaccuracies can easily occur due to people not correctlyrecalling the type and amounts of food consumed eitherdeliberately or not remembering Limited representation of certain groups within thepopulation Occur infrequently so many not truly represent currenttrends in food and changes in food consumption habits
RECENT SURVEYS National Children’s Nutrition and Physical ActivitySurvey (Feb – August 2007 and results reported 2008) First survey for children conducted in over 10 years First to include dietary intake and exercise Conducted by CSIRO & University of SA Jointly funded by government and industry through theAustralian Food and Grocery Council Phone Survey of 4000 young people aged 5 – 16 yrs acrossAustralia (24 hour food recall, 48 hour activity recall 9+ andpedometer record – 5-8yrs) Repeated 1-3 weeks later
NATIONAL CHILDREN’S NUTRITION ANDPHYSICAL ACTIVITY SURVEY (2007)Your Task – Referring to page 241 -242 Select 3 findings and for each finding State two ways that the governments or the private sectormight use these findings What health outcomes may occur if such patterns continue What costs might occur if the finding is not addressed List 3 reasons why the Government would conduct a surveysuch as the National Children’s Nutrition and PhysicalActivity Survey
NATIONAL CHILDREN’S NUTRITION ANDPHYSICAL ACTIVITY SURVEY (2007) Kids Eat, Kids Play Survey Results Page 241 Why was this survey was conducted? Need for data on children’s nutritional intake, physical activityand weight status for monitoring purposes and to inform policyand decision-making in this area.• Results enabled governments and health professionals: Understand and analysis changes in children’s eating and activitypatterns. Target strategies that address areas of concern Sets benchmarks for strategies to be measured against Build appropriate and informed policy Provides evidence base for development and evaluation ofgovernment policies
NUTRIENT REFERENCE VALUES (NRVS) Published in 2005 Joint recommendations for nutrient intakes for Australiaand New Zealand Amounts of nutrients required on an average dailybasis for adequate physiological function andprevention of deficiency disease or chronic diseaseprevention Multiple levels of nutrients Additional information re: levels of intake that may reducethe risk of chronic diseases and information in dietarypattern required to reduce the risk of chronic disease suchas heart disease and obesity
FROM VCAA… NRV form the basis of all nutritional models and tools usedwithin Australia (e.g. AGHE, Dietary Guidelines) Focus - the purpose of the NRV to guide dietary intake But, we do not want students to understand the differencesbetween all the differing measures, eg RDI, EAR, UL, AMDR,SDTWhat you need to know: What are the NRV and what are they used for? Who uses the NRV? How are the NRV related to other nutritional tools such as thosereferred to in the subsequent points of the key knowledge,including the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, DietaryGuidelines and food legislation such as food labelling
NUTRIENT REFERENCE VALUES: THEIRPURPOSE IN GUIDING HEALTHY EATING.THE FOUR MAIN VALUES INCLUDE:a) EAR: an average intake sufficient to meet theneeds of half of the populationb) RDI: a generous allowance that will meet theneeds of about 98% of the populationc) AI: a minimum amount that will prevent adeficiencyd) UL: an upper level amount, more that whichmight create concerns related to an excess
PURPOSE OF NRV Assess the likelihood of inadequate intake in individuals orgroups of people (Dietitians – Health Professionals) Use in research and data compilation - Government Used for large scale catering or meal planning i.e. hospitals,aged-care facilities, Armed Services- Consumers Developing food choice guides (Dietary Guidelines) -Gov Food labelling laws to help make informed decisions – Gov Setting food policy and legislation - Government Educate individuals about the types and amounts of foodsrequired to satisfy their nutritional requirements -HP Food manufactures – useful when developing modified foods(fortification of food i.e. folic acid in bread) or products thatare a sole source of nutrition such as home mealreplacements
LIMITATIONSRecommendations are generally for healthypeople – may not be suitable for some peopleNot suitable for pre-term infants or for peoplewith specific genetic profilesDo not take into account: Additional needs of individuals on Medication i.e. Warfin Those whose lifestyle may affect nutrient absorption or use such aspeople who smoke or have a high intake of alcohol.• Difficult to understand and interpret due to thecomplexity and breadth of information withouta nutrition background• Designed for use by nutritional professionals
1. Using the data in this table, compare the intake of the eight-year-old female (with a high activity level) with the RDIs. Identifynutrients that the child is deficient in, and those that she ishaving an excess of.
AUSTRALIAN GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING(AGHE) = DEVELOPED IN 1998 (REVISED 2013) The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is a (government designed)food selection model that was in response to the increasing number ofAustralians suffering from diet-related diseases. It incorporates 5 main food groups, acknowledges the consumption of‘sometimes’ foods eaten in small amounts, suggesting food that should beused in small amounts and encourages the consumption of water. It is based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines converts scientific knowledge of food consumption and the NRV’s for health into apractical guide for food selection. Purpose - Nutrition Guide to provide information to individuals makehealthy food choices regarding the appropriate foods to choose to eat eachday and increase the health of Australians by helping individuals to developthe skills and knowledge necessary to choose a healthy diet.
Visual representation of the recommended proportion of thediet to choose from each group Reflects multicultural nature of Australia A tool for health professionals and educators to promotehealthy eating and good nutrition, planning menus,patient/client counselling, promotional messages and publichealth programs Includes recommended daily serves and information aboutwhat is a ‘serve’ of each food group. (This is important as onepersons interpretation of what constitutes a sample sizemaybe different to another persons) Provides information about the amounts and kinds of food thatan individual needs to eat daily in order to obtain enough ofthe nutrients essential for good health. It is accompanied by extra information: table, sample serves
Your Task” Summarise each section Describe The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating– whatinformation is provided? Who and when was the model developed? Why was the model produced? Who is the model aimed at? List limitations of the model. Read p 249 – Applying the AGHE
DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AUSTRALIANS Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults (2003) –2013 Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents inAustralia (no longer valid) Guidelines seek to promote the potential benefits ofhealthy eating to reduce the risk of diet-related diseaseand improve the community’s health and well-beingthroughout the lifespan Potential economic benefit of an effective nutrition-basedpreventative strategy is enormous (current cost $6 billiona year) Australian dietary guidelines website
LIMITATIONS OF THE AUSTRALIAN GUIDE TOHEALTH EATING AND THE DIETARY GUIDELINES Limited application to those population groups thathave increased or different nutritional needs iepregnant women. Assume a certain level of nutritional knowledge ofcertain terms ie ‘wide variety’, ‘low fat’. ‘eat plenty’ Do not support disadvantaged groups such as low-income earners who may have difficulty affording awide variety of foods or people from multiculturalbackgrounds who may find it hard to access theircultural foods.
Your Task: Describe the Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults –what information is provided? Who and when was the model developed? Why was the model produced? Who are they aimed at? List limitations of the guidelines Summarise the significance of each guideline