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Dt pt 4 differences in global health factors income and gender equality



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  • 1. Unit 4 Outcome 1 Dt Pt 4 Chapter 8.3 Pg 278
  • 2. The influence of...8 factors... on the health status of developing countries and Australia Influence of:  income  gender equality  peace  education  access to healthcare  political stability  global marketing  physical environments
  • 3. Influence of income p.278  Income has a significant on the impact on health status  Impact can be felt on 2 levels  - Individual & family income  - Income of the country itself  GDP - Gross Domestic Product  If a country is not able to make a significant profit through trade then it can place a great deal of pressure on government resources
  • 4. Impact of income  A country’s income may need to be divided between military expenses and repaying debt among other things  It leaves little money left to spend on resources such as healthcare, education, infrastructure, clean water and sanitation  Poverty line: A measure of the of the minimum level of income required to cover the basic cost of living and achieve an adequate standard of living  Global Financial Crisis impact- collapse of global trade - 53 million more people could be trapped in poverty as economic growth slows around the world
  • 5. Impact of income  According to the World Bank 1.4 billion people in developing countries (equals to 1 in 4) live below poverty line (earn less than US$1.25 per day)  Living in poverty is much more than just a lack of money  Poverty = poor health, missed education, increased violence, insecurity, discrimination.  Poverty = lack of basic human requirements such as food, clean water, healthcare & education.  Few opportunities & choices to improve their situation – Human Development and Health negatively impacted  The cycle of poverty and the deprivation that results, is very difficult to break
  • 6. The cycle of poverty
  • 7.  There is a direct link between lack of income, poverty and ill health  Poverty = low levels of nutrition, education & healthcare  Being unhealthy traps people in poverty. Why??  In Australia there are many families living in poverty for reasons such as - low wages, unemployment, being sole- parent or disability, indigenous populations
  • 8. Explain how the income of an individual and the income of the country contribute to differences in health between Australia and developing countries. Australia Developing countries • Low rates of unemployment increases the income of many individuals, which increases the options available in relation to healthcare, access to food and shelter improving health status. • Higher GDP for the country increases the money available to spend on healthcare and education. • Higher GDP also increases the money available for social security to support individuals with lower incomes improving choice, access to healthcare and improving health status. • No social security reduces the income of individuals and families, which contributes to poverty. • Poverty leads to lower literacy rates, which contribute to poverty – people are less likely to be able to break the poverty cycle. • Low GDP means less money is spent by governments of health and education contributing to poverty within these countries. • Poor infrastructure ↓ access to health services – poor roads, long queues, removal of wastes, transport • Low incomes reduces choices. • Low incomes increase malnutrition. • Low income countries are associated with reduced access to safe water and sanitation, education, healthcare and social security. As a result they have low immunisation rates, low literacy rates, high infant and maternal mortality rates – ↓ health status. Explain how the income of an individual and the income of the country contribute to differences in health and Human development between Australia and developing countries.
  • 9.  Purchasing power parity (PPP) – a method of measuring purchasing power of currencies of different countries across the same types of goods and services, which allows more accurate comparisons of standards of living.  Direct link between lack of income, poverty and ill health  Poverty is a major cause of ill health  Those who live in poverty have lower levels of nutrition, education, healthcare and medication, increased risk of infectious diseases, inadequate shelter - ↑injury, morbidity and mortality
  • 10. Case Study Than lived in a small slum dwelling in Vietnam with his family. They had no safe water supply and shared a toilet with five other families. Than worked hard every day collecting scrap metal to sell to provide and income for his family. One day he felt so sick; he couldn’t eat or go to work. After two days he went to the doctor and was told he needed antibiotics for two weeks. Than could only afford the medicine for one week, but he felt better anyway and so returned to work after three days of medication. He had no choice as his family had nothing to eat. Another week passed and Than started to fell sick again, but he couldn’t afford to go to the doctor or pay for more antibiotics as he hadn’t earned enough money in the last week.  Identify 3 factors that could have contributed to Thans lack of income?  List 4 effects of low income on Than and his family  What are the long-term effects on Than’s health if this cycle continues?
  • 11. Gender Equality – must remember this!!  Means - Men and women have equal opportunities to realise their potential, contribute to their country and benefit equally from their participation in their community.  Gender inequality – men and women treated differently and have different expectations placed on them because of their sex.  Of the 1.3 billion poorest, only 30% are male  Women comprise of 1/2 the worlds population, perform 2/3rds of its work, receive only 1/10th of its income and own less than 1/100th of world assets’ (UN 1985)
  • 12. Influence of gender equality p.279  In Australia females experience most of the same opportunities as males  The status & treatment of women in many developing countries lags behind that of men ... including: access to education, income, employment and legal rights, fewer opportunities in life, denied access to resources that will keep their families and themselves healthy
  • 13. Gender inequality  In developing countries being born a female is a definite disadvantage throughout the lifespan  Are given less food  Are provide with medical treatment less frequently  Attend school for short periods of time; if given the opportunity to attend school at all  Forced into marriage at a much earlier age  Shoulder most of the responsibility for child-rearing and work in rural areas particularly
  • 14. Influence of gender equality  The birth of a boy is celebrated, while birth of a girl is considered a disappointment, which may lead to feelings of guilt in the mother  Women & children are always busy with many responsibilities; collecting water for drinking, cooking and washing.  Nearest source of water is a long way from home & is a long & exhausting task  Many domestic duties leave little time for children, especially for girls to attend school  Girls often earn a living by the age of 10, & are expected to work 12- 16 hours a day
  • 15.  Women tend to feeding their husbands and sons first, in times of shortages this increases the likelihood of females being malnourished  Women are often financially dependent, lack freedom  More difficult to get paid work  Women tend to marry young & give birth to many children  Reasons for having a large family: cultural barriers to family planning, large proportion of children die under the age of 5, children viewed as a form of social security, more children = more people to work for the family to provide food
  • 16. Influence of gender equality  Women have fewer protected rights and suffer varying forms of social, political, cultural and economic discrimination  Many women face a life time of violence & exploitation  Gender inequality in households, workplaces & communities can foster permissive violence, making violence common & accepted in many communities  UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) found in India that 16% of all deaths among pregnant women were due to partner violence
  • 17.  Violence has obvious implications: chronic pain, genital bruising & broken bones  It also has social, emotional and psychological implications  Violence against women remains a serious yet challenging issue due to many cultural barriers  The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is used by the UN as apart of the Human Development Index to measure gender equality- it is based in 3 dimensions of empowerment: - Economic participation & decision making - Political participation & decision making - Power over economic resources
  • 18. Adult Roles  Many children in developing countries grow up too quickly  Females are particularly expected to fulfill adult tasks  Tasks include: looking after siblings, taking responsibilities for earning part of family income, domestic chores...
  • 19. Adult Roles - marriage  Each year in developing countries many girls under the age of 18 are married See page 293 Figure 10.7  Forced to assume the adult roles such as: sex, motherhood, household duties etc.  Marriage can put an end to educational opportunities  It also traps women who have few rights in life of domestic & sexual compliance  Early marriage can have a devastating impact on girls physical health and development  Pregnancy and childbirth carry an increased risk of infant mortality  It may cause devastating physical damage on the body of the young girl whose body is not yet developed  Girls who give birth under 15 years of age are 5 times more likely to die in childbirth than women in their 20’s (MMR)  Child Brides – View Youtube clip
  • 20. Obstetric Fistula Repairing Obstetric Fistula Case Study P286 - 287
  • 21. Adult Roles - Child Labour  Many girls aged 15 – 17 in developing are involved in child labour  Dangerous conditions  Results in injury, disability, or death  Very labour intensive work can affect health and development  Forced into paid work denies many girls of an education & opportunity to have a childhood  All which have an impact on their health and development at various stages throughout their lives
  • 22. Exploitation  Trafficking children is a serious concern in developing countries  Some children are forcibly abducted, tricked and some allow themselves to be trafficked in order to make money  After or during times of conflict or natural disaster (children separated from family and/or orphaned) there is an increased risk of exploitation  Many children are forced into sex work, hazardous labour or domestic service  Removed from family & community = isolation & vulnerability  Exploited children are often malnourished, suffer physical abuse & punishment, are at extreme risk of sexual abuse
  • 23. But What if Gender Equality Existed??  What could happen??  Dare to think...gender equality – View YouTube clip
  • 24. The Girl Effect  The power of Girls …. The unexpected solution..  Girl effect 1 – View YouTube clip
  • 25. Girl Effect  The girl effect is about leveraging the unique potential of adolescent girls to end poverty for themselves, their families, their communities, their countries and the world...  Girl Effect 2 – View YouTube clip
  • 26. Write statements to explain.. 1. The impact of gender equality in Developing Countries  Health  Human Development  Health Status 1. The impact of gender equality in Developed Countries such as Australia  Health  Human Development  Health Status
  • 27. a) Identify some key issues relating to the inequality faced by girls in developing countries. b) Discuss how these issues contribute to differences in the health of girls in Australia compared to developing countries. Key issues relating to the inequality of girls How these issues contribute to differences in the health of girls in Australia compared to developing countries Early marriage As a result of poverty many girls are forced into marriage at a very young age. As a result they have babies at a young age, and in quick succession, which increases the rate of infant and maternal and infant mortality in developing countries. However if gender equality exists, as it does in Australia, girls can be educated and marry at an older age and have less children increasing the health and life expectancy of both mother and child due to improved nutrition and health knowledge thus decreasing Maternal Mortality, U5MR and infant mortality. Exploitation Due to poverty and conflict girls are at risk of being trafficked, forced into prostitution or child labour, leading to malnutrition, abuse and violence ↑ injury, mortality and morbidity. If gender
  • 28. Gender equality Key issues relating to the inequality of girls How these issues contribute to differences in the health of girls in Australia compared to developing countries Less likely to be educated Due to culture, household tasks and poverty females are less likely to be educated than males, which will contribute to exhaustion, injury, malnutrition in females, especially during pregnancy ↑ maternal & infant mortality. . If gender equality exists, …….. Employment / adult roles As a result of poverty, lack of education and role in family women and female children are busy helping the family to survive – collecting water, washing cooking etc. This leads to health problems such as chronic exhaustion. Lack of work life balance, sociocultural attitudes, fewer rights, child birth women in DC do not have the same access to employment as men. Lack of education -> unskilled labour – low pay and poor working conditions ↑ injury ↓ health. . If gender equality exists, …….. DVD – poverty’s women Gender equality