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    Blueprint for strategic sponsorship Blueprint for strategic sponsorship Document Transcript

    •   A Blueprint for Strategic Sponsorship By Janus Kodadek
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   2   Executive Summary Given  the  authentic  passion  and  loyalty  that  many  consumers  possess  for  sport,  music,  art,  and   entertainment,  marketers  have  long  embraced  sponsorship  as  a  means  to  develop  brand  equity.       Most  early  sponsorships  were  driven  by  ‘Chairman’s  whim,’  and  focused  on  gaining  exposure  and  awareness,   often  through  logo  displays  and  branded  signage.  For  many  organisations,  this  is  still  the  dominant  approach,   but  more  commonly,  contemporary  sponsorships  attempt  a  more  integrated  approach,  with  a  focus  on   consumer  engagement  and  the  achievement  of  multiple  objectives,  short  and  longer  term.   Sponsorship  remains  an  important  option  in  a  marketer’s  toolkit,  with  new  approaches  that  address  and   capitalize  on  the  changing  market  context.  Moreover,  used  strategically,  sponsorship  can  offer  a  competitive   advantage  in  the  current  market  environment.   This  report  outlines  a  five-­‐step  blueprint  to  guide  marketers  in  creating  effective  strategic  sponsorship   platforms.  Drawing  on  diverse  perspectives,  this  methodology  offers  a  holistic  approach  that  incorporates   best  practice  principles  from  integrated  marketing  communications;  experiential  and  digital  marketing;  service   dominant  logic;  brand  and  sponsorship  strategy;  and  real  world  insights  from  a  range  of  senior-­‐level  brand   marketing  and  sponsorship  professionals,  coupled  with  illustrative  case  studies  of  innovative  sponsorship   activations.   • Authenticate:  Clearly  define  goals  and  objectives  for  the  sponsorship,  leading  with  strategic   business  objectives.    Anchor  the  sponsorship  in  consumer  insight  to  ensure  that  the  sponsorship   platform  is  relevant  and  authentic  to  the  target  consumer  base.         • Correlate:  A  strategic  sponsorship  platform  requires  “fit  for  purpose,”  that  is,  congruence   between  the  strategic  objectives  set  forth  in  the  first  step  and  choice  of  partner.  Such  “fit”  will   ensure  the  relationship  will  deliver  the  raw  materials  needed  to  achieve  success.  Foster  a  true   partnership,  ensuring  that  the  strategic  goals  of  both  parties  are  viewed  as  equally  important.   Based  on  reciprocity,  the  sponsor-­‐rights  holder  relationship  becomes  a  marketing  alliance  rather   than  a  transactional  arrangement.       • Collaborate:  Assets  and  activations  that  are  created  collaboratively  between  sponsor  and  rights-­‐ holder  enable  the  brand  to  use  the  property  as  a  conduit  through  which  it  connects  with  the   target  audience.  This  allows  the  brand  to  create  a  bond  with  the  audience,  rather  than  simply  an   association  with  the  property.         • Activate:  Having  completed  the  planning  process,  activation  is  where  the  sponsorship  comes  to   life  for  the  consumer,  offering  the  opportunity  to  innovate  products  and  services,  foster   differentiation,  communicate  a  brand’s  proposition,  stimulate  consumer  engagement  and  co-­‐ creation.     • Evaluate:  In  a  strategic  approach,  evaluation  should  focus  on  determining  if  pre-­‐existing   objectives  have  been  achieved.      
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   3   Introduction         Given  the  authentic  passion  and  loyalty  that  many  consumers  possess  for  sport,  music,  art,  and   entertainment,  marketers  have  long  embraced  sponsorship  as  a  means  to  develop  brand  equity.       Most  early  sponsorships  were  driven  by  ‘Chairman’s  whim,’  and  focused  on  gaining  exposure  and  awareness,   often  through  logo  displays  and  branded  signage.  For  many  organisations,  this  is  still  the  dominant  approach,   but  more  commonly,  contemporary  sponsorships  attempt  a  more  integrated  approach,  with  a  focus  on   consumer  engagement  and  the  achievement  of  multiple  objectives,  short  and  longer  term.   Sponsorship  remains  an  important  option  in  a  marketer’s  toolkit,  with  new  approaches  that  address  and   capitalize  on  the  changing  market  context.    Moreover,  used  strategically,  sponsorship  can  offer  a  competitive   advantage  in  the  current  market  environment.   Since  the  mid-­‐1990s,  rapid  innovations  in  technology  and  widespread  access  to  the  Internet  have  profoundly   altered  marketing  communications,  shifting  power  from  the  marketer  and  channel  to  consumers.  This  change   has  given  consumers  unprecedented  control  over  the  messages  they  receive  and  the  ability  to  avoid  those   messages  that  are  unwelcome.  Traditional  marketing  communications  tactics,  where  messages  are  simply   pushed  at  consumers,  have  become  increasingly  less  effective  as  consumers  embrace  the  opportunity  to  be   active  participants  in  defining  their  relationship  with  brands.    As  access  to  information  has  democratized,   media  has  become  fragmented.   Many  brands  have  embraced  the  concept1  that  the  perception  (or  value)  of  a  brand  is  jointly  created  –  based   on  both  what  the  brand  communicates  about  itself,  as  well  as  the  consumer’s  own  experience  of  the  brand.   Also  called  “co-­‐creation,”  this  occurs  whenever  consumers  interact  with  a  company’s  touch  points  or   products.  Sponsorships  can  provide  experiences  and  messages  that  can  be  used  to  enrich  consumer‘s  own   interpretation  (co-­‐creation)  of  the  brand.     Experiences  are  inherently  personal  and  unique  to  each  individual,  subject  to  interpretation  and  affect  based   on  that  person’s  collective  knowledge  and  past  experiences.  If  a  consumer  experiences  a  brand  in  a   memorable  way  (positive  or  negative),  he  or  she  is  more  likely  to  share  the  experience  and  take  action.    An   experience  cannot  be  skipped  over  like  a  television  commercial.  The  ultimate  goal  is  to  create  marketing  that   does  not  feel  like  marketing,  where  the  brand  resonates  as  a  relevant  and  authentic  part  of  a  consumer’s  life.   Today’s  sponsorship  is  both  strategic  and  versatile;  it  can  drive  a  brand’s  entire  marketing  program,  propel   strategic  value  for  an  organisation,  be  centred  at  the  heart  of  employee  engagement  programs  and  reduce   costs  through  partner  synergies.     The  whole  reason  you  go  into  a  partnership  is  to  do  something  different  from  the  normal  channels.   The  modern  consumer  has  so  much  grasping  his/her  attention  that  you  have  to  have  added  value,   and  partnerships  are  a  great  way  of  finding  that  added  value.                                                                                                                   Managing  Director,  Sponsorship  Agency   1  Service  Dominant  Logic:  Customers  are  no  longer  seen  as  buying  goods  or  services,  but  rather  products  that  provide  a  service.   The  value  of  that  service  is  determined  by  and  dependent  on  need  and  consumer  experience.  For  example,  a  customer  would   buy  a  pen,  however  according  to  service  dominant  logic,  the  customer  is  actually  purchasing  an  instrument  to  enable  him  or  her     (or  another  consumer)  to  write.  The  value  of  that  instrument  is  dictated  by  both  need  (real  or  perceived)  and  the  unique   experience  of  using  that  instrument.  This  redefines  ‘value’  as  ‘co-­‐created’  between  the  brand,  product  and  consumer.  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   4     Brands  first  tried  to  talk  to  consumers  while  they  were  walking  down  the  road.  Then  the  savvier  brands   thought  ‘we  need  to  interact  with  these  people.’  Now,  it’s  moved  beyond  that,  where  consumers  are   deciding  what  brands  do  and  how  they  operate.  So,  the  savviest  brands  are  looking  first  and  foremost  to   their  consumers  and  trying  to  understand  their  consumers  through  the  medium  of  social  media  –  which  is   even  easier  to  do  now.    Then  they  can  twist  their  own  activities  to  that,  to  function  to  that,  to  co-­‐create.   That’s  why  sponsorship  is  great  –  it’s  great  for  co-­‐creation.                                                                                                                                             Managing  Director,  Marketing  Agency   A Blueprint for Strategic Sponsorship   The  following  outlines  a  five-­‐step  blueprint  to  guide  marketers  in  creating  effective  strategic  sponsorship   platforms  (Figure  1).  Drawing  on  diverse  perspectives,  this  methodology  offers  a  holistic  approach  that   incorporates  best  practice  principles  from  integrated  marketing  communications;  experiential  marketing;   service  dominant  logic;  brand  and  sponsorship  strategy;  and  insights  from  a  range  of  senior-­‐level  brand   marketing  and  sponsorship  professionals.   The  steps  that  follow  should  be  considered  fluid  and  not  necessarily  linear.    As  an  organization  goes  through   the  strategic  process,  new  ideas  will  likely  arise,  requiring  that  the  organisation  reiterate  the  relevant  steps  as   needed.   Figure  1:  Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   5   AUTHENTICATE Lead with Business Objectives   The  organisation  must  clearly  define  goals  and  objectives  for  the  sponsorship  –  a  seemingly  obvious  step  that   is  sometimes  overlooked.    A  starting  point  would  be  analysing  overall  organizational  goals,  strengths,  and   needs  in  light  of  what  outcomes  the  sponsorship  could  deliver  (Figure  2).                           Figure  2:  Some  potential  outcomes  of  strategic  sponsorship   By  linking  sponsorship  objectives  to  delivering  on  overall  organisational  objectives,  the  sponsorship  will   directly  support  (and  become  a  driver  of)  the  organisation’s  value  creation  strategy.       For  example,  if  expansion  of  the  brand’s  global   footprint  is  identified  as  an  organisational  goal,   corresponding  sponsorship  goals  might  be  gaining   access  to  new  markets  or  channels,  and/or   inspiring  new  product  and  service  lines  relevant  to   those  markets.  Partnering  with  another  entity  that   has  established  equity  within  a  desired  target   market  may  shorten  or  circumvent  the  process  of  developing  brand  awareness.  Alternatively,  having   developed  equity  and  expertise  in  those  markets,  the  partnered  entity  could  provide  critical  market   intelligence.  These  advantages,  in  turn,  may  allow  the  organisation  to  expand  more  rapidly  into  this  new     Through  partnerships  you  can  reach  more  customers   than  you  would’ve  done  on  your  own.  You  can  get  into   categories  and  pick  up  attributes  that  will  allow  you  to   create  future  platforms.    You  can  migrate  to  future   areas  and  share  knowledge,  R&D,  etc.                                                                 Director,  Strategy  Agency  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   6     market,  providing  inroads,  incremental  marketing  exposure  and  ultimately  gaining  new  customers.   The  most  cost-­‐effective  sponsorships  platforms  will   achieve  multiple  goals  for  the  organisation  externally   and  internally.  For  example,  Marketing  might  focus   on  building  relationships  with  customers  through  the   sponsorship,  while  Human  Resources  could  use  it  to   encourage  employee  loyalty,  thereby  improving   workforce  retention.       In  order  to  achieve  multiple  goals,  it  is  necessary  to   secure  buy-­‐in  from  a  range  of  internal  stakeholders  (Board,  management  and  employees),  and  commitment  to   use  the  sponsorship  within  their  own  functional  area.  Their  departmental  needs  and  concerns  must  be   understood  and  addressed  and,  whenever  possible,  their  requests  represented  in  negotiations  of  rights  and   assets.  By  considering  these  opportunities  from  the  very  beginning,  internal  stakeholders  can  become  key   ambassadors  for  the  sponsorship,  thereby  reducing  friction,  fostering  support  and  encouraging  ideas  and   utilisation  from  across  the  business.   Rights  holders  who  have  a  strategic  vision  and  want  to   achieve  success  in  different  parts  of  the  world  will  look   beyond  the  cash  to  certain  brands,  understanding  the   value  they  bring  over  and  beyond  the  cash.  We  have  no   representation  in  a  lot  of  the  markets  in  which  we  want   to  grow.    Partners  are  key  to  gaining  access,  fully   aligned  with  our  global  marketing  plan.                                                         Marketing  Director,  Sport  Rights  Holder   Ground the Sponsorship in Consumer Insight   Anchoring  the  sponsorship  in  consumer  insight  at  the  onset  will  ensure  that  the  sponsorship  platform  is   authentic  and  relevant  to  the  target  consumer  base.    Using  deep  knowledge  about  the  target  consumer  as  a   foundation  to  guide  sponsorship  choices  should  inspire  potential  sponsorship  properties  and  activation   programmes  to  consider.       If  a  sponsoring  organisation  has  truly  intimate  insights  into  the  target  market,  it  can  develop  initiatives  that   deeply  engage  consumers,  fostering  brand  connection  and  loyalty.  To  get  the  needed  depth  of  insight,  brands   will  need  to  look  beyond  demographic  surveys  and  syndicated  research.    Such  insights  include  psychographics,   an  understanding  of  customer  motivations,  self-­‐definitions,  group  norms,  and  peer  influences;  as  well  as  an   honest  appraisal  of  the  customer’s  psychological  relationship  and  experience  with  the  brand,  property  and   competitor  brands.       Property Creation   Property  creation  is  an  increasingly  attractive  and  innovative  alternative  to  a  traditional  sponsorship  platform   especially  in  crowded  markets  and  with  brands   seeking  to  utilize  their  consumer  insight  to  build   customer  intimacy  or  show  that  they  are   authentically  entrenched  in  a  subculture.     Creating  a  proprietary  brand  property,  such  as  a   grassroots  sport  competition  or  ‘insider’  content   series  can  be  very  resource  intensive  and  may  not   be  an  appropriate  or  feasible  solution  for  every   brand.     However,  property  creation  offers  a  brand  many  benefits:  total  ownership  over  implementation;  control  over   every  element  of  the  experience;  potential  to  offset  some  of  the  financial  liability  by  selling  sponsorships  to   non-­‐competitive  brands;  and  reducing  risk  by  allowing  the  brand  to  fully  control  the  choice  of  other  brands   affiliated  with  the  property,  reducing  access  to  non-­‐compatible  partners.     The  most  innovative  ideas  come,  not  from  sponsorship,   but  rather  property  creation.  Tapping  into  the   personality  of  the  audience  and  creating  a  [property]   that  reflects  that  personality…  Brands  are  moving  more   into  ownership,  event  creation  and  experiential.   Creation,  full  stop.  Not  feeling  the  need  for  a  traditional   partnership  to  secure  what  they  think  they  want  to  do.   Entertainment  Director,  Integrated  Agency  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   7   Case Study | Gatorade REPLAY Utilising Consumer Insight to Create Passion-driven Marketing Programs   In  January  2009,  Gatorade  created  an  event  reuniting  the  original  players  of   two  rival  American  high  school  teams  (now  in  their  mid-­‐30s)  to  replay  the  tied  final  game  from  their  senior   year,  breaking  a  sixteen-­‐year  deadlock  in  a  full-­‐contact,  regulation  football  game.    The  company’s  aim  was  to   reignite  athletic  excitement  and  rekindle  product  sales  in  men  over  thirty,  70%  of  whom  do  not  exercise   regularly.       They  called  the  event  REPLAY.       Bringing  together  the  Easton  Area  Red  Rovers  (Easton,   Pennsylvania)  and  the  Philipsburg  Stateliners   (Philipsburg,  New  Jersey),  Gatorade  used  the  re-­‐ training  of  the  amateur  athletes  as  a  visceral  backdrop  to  seamlessly  demonstrate  the  product’s  functional   benefit  (fuelling  athletic  performance)  and  showcase  its  value  proposition.    The  experience  became  a  catalyst   for  athletic  achievement  through  multiple,  coordinated  mediums.   Originally  broadcast  through  a  series  of  web  episodes,  fans  all  over  the  world  watched  as  the  teams   experienced  the  opportunity  of  every  athlete’s  dreams:  a  second  chance  at  victory.  Capturing  the  personal   struggles  and  achievements  of  various  players,  viewers  were  introduced  to  the  Gatorade  Sports  Science   Institute  (GSSI)  through  a  series  of  training  camps  and  programs  developed  to  get  the  players  back  into  game   shape.  The  GSSI  included  coaching  from  Eagles  head  coach  Andy  Reid  and  all-­‐pro  running  back,  Brian   Westbrook,  at  the  Eagles  training  facility.  The  training  program,  entitled  ‘Eight  Weeks  to  Glory,’  was  available   online,  along  with  a  Facebook  application  that  helped  followers  reunite  their  own  former  teams.         As  Game  Day  grew  near,  the  culture  of  the  two  rival  towns  was  further  highlighted,  with  some  of  the  original   cheerleaders  and  marching  band  members  joining  to  support  their  respective  teams.     Tickets  for  the  rematch  sold  out  in  90   minutes,  as  15,000  enthusiastic  fans  came   out  in  unseasonably  warm  32°C  (90°F)   weather  to  watch.  The  104th  meeting  of  the   two  teams  was  led  by  honorary  coaches,   Gatorade  athletes  and  NFL  quarterbacks   Peyton  and  Eli  Manning.  The  Phillipsburg   Stateliners  broke  the  16-­‐year  tie,  winning  27-­‐12.   Based  on  a  $225,000  paid  media  spend,  the  campaign  reportedly  generated  over  $3  million  in  media   coverage,  partially  driven  by  frequent  coverage  in  sports  news  roundups.  Regional  product  sales  grew  by  63%.   The  original  online  web  episode  series  was  made  into  a  documentary  TV  series  broadcast  to  90  million   households  on  Fox  Sports  Net.     Winning  two  Cannes  Lions,  a  Brand  Experience  and  an  Effie  Award,  the  campaign  inspired  thousands  of   athletes  to  petition  to  be  selected  for  future  seasons.  Two  subsequent  seasons  pitted  rival  hockey  and   basketball  teams  for  epic  rematches.  All  told,  the  REPLAY  series  continued  to  affirm  Gatorade’s  significance  to   both  professional  and  amateur  athletes.  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   8     Brands  will  need  to  understand  and  capitalise  on   new  channels  of  communication,  methods  of   consumption,  and  expectations  around  when,  where   and  how  consumers  buy  and  use  products  and   services.    Age,  gender  and  location  no  longer  offer   reliable  indicators  of  what  a  consumer  may  desire  or   purchase,  nor  of  skill  with  digital  technology.   Any  success  in  a  sponsorship  campaign  comes  from   simplicity.  We  can  sit  in  ivory  towers  in  West  London   dreaming  up  wonderful  plans,  forgetting  that  our  target   audience  is  going  to  have  three  seconds  of  interaction   with  our  brand  on  a  poster  as  they  whip  past  in  a  car  or   a  train.  They’re  not  going  to  be  privy  to  our  brand   onions  and  things  like  that.  I  think  that  whatever  you  do   needs  to  boil  down  to  consumer  insight  so  they  just  get   it  and  not  be  too  complicated.                                                         Managing  Director,  Marketing  Agency   CORRELATE Ensure “Fit for Purpose” Historically,  the  term  “fit”  referred  to  congruence  of  brand  elements  between  property  and  sponsor  or   celebrity  endorser  and  sponsor.  However,  a  strategic  sponsorship  platform  requires  “fit  for  purpose,”  that  is,   congruence  between  the  strategic  objectives  set  forth  in  Step  1,  and  choice  of  partner.  Such  “fit”  will  ensure   the  relationship  will  deliver  the  raw  materials  needed  to  achieve  success.     A  successful  partnership  will  rest  on  a  foundation  of  clarity  around  the  brand’s  and  rights  holder’s  DNA,  brand   proposition  and  clear  insight  into  the  target  audience.       The  brand  should  make  an  honest  appraisal  of  the  target  market’s  present  relationship  and  experience   (positive  or  negative)  with  the  brand,  as  well  as  the  physical  and  digital  assets  needed  to  create  engaging   activations.  These  insights  will  help  the  brand  assess  the  fit  of  potential  partners.       In  evaluating  properties,  the  sponsoring  organisation  should  consider  all  factors  relevant  to  the  successful   outcome  of  the  strategy.  These  include  the  property’s  own  brand,  objectives,  timeline  and  target  audience.   Most  importantly,  however,  is  whether  the   partnership  will  be  able  to  communicate  and   activate  the  brand’s  proposition,  as  the  sponsored   property  becomes  the  vehicle  for  connecting  with   the  target  consumer.       Sometimes  a  brand,  like  RedBull,  is  already   embedded  in  a  subculture  and  the  appropriate  partner  is  obvious,  while  other  times  the  organisation  wants   to  develop  new  or  deepen  existing  associations.       At  this  early  stage,  it  is  useful  to  consider  activation  plans  and  how  to  evaluate  the  success  of  the  platform,   that  is,  which  metrics  will  be  used;  both  activation  plans  and  evaluation  metrics  will  help  ensure  that  the   brand  negotiates  the  required  rights  and  assets.           Ultimately,  whilst  a  partnership  needs  to  sit  very  well   alongside  a  brand  strategy  and  be  integrated  into  an   overall  marketing  strategy,  if  your  consumers  don’t   care  about  jazz  music  and  you’re  going  into  a  jazz   partnership,  you’re  not  going  to  achieve  anything.                                               Entertainment  Director,  Marketing  Agency  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   9       Questions to help guide leveraging and activation In  her  paper  Last  Generation  Sponsorship,  leading  sponsorship  expert  Kim  Skildum-­‐Reid  suggests  that   selection  and  negotiation  of  a  strategic  sponsorship  is  likely  to  be  guided  by  answers  to  questions  like:   • What  do  my  target  markets  care  about?  Are  there  any  events,  sports,  program,  causes  that  they  really   care  about  or  which  form  part  of  their  self-­‐definition?  (e.g.  snowboarding,  volunteerism,  the  high  arts,   child  safety)   • What  are  the  ways  that  my  target  market  consumes  that  event  (stadium,  at  home  with  friends,  reading   about  it  in  the  paper?)       • What  are  the  best  things  about  this  event  experience  to  my  target  audience?  What  are  the  worst  things   about  this  event  experience  to  my  target  audience?   • Is  my  brand  part  of  the  experience?  Could  it  be?  How  can  we  improve  that  experience?   • What  are  the  ways  that  my  target  market  consumes  my  brand  and  competitor  brands?  What  is  their   “brand  experience?”   • Could  that  experience  be  improved  using  the  unique  benefits  of  sponsorship?   http://www.powersponsorship.com/free-­‐stuff.html?re=1/LastGenerationSponsorship.pdf   Ÿ Activation  Plan   Activation  is  the  execution  or  implementation  phase  of  a  sponsorship,  in  which  consumers  interact   with  the  brand’s  touch-­‐points  and  the  sponsorship  comes  to  life.    Every  aspect  of  activation  –  from   initial  concept,  to  production  value,  to  integration  with  the  sponsored  property  -­‐-­‐  communicates  a   message  about  the  brand  and  its  commitment  to  the  audience.    Considering  activation  along  with   sponsorship  goals  at  the  very  beginning  of  the  planning  process  ensures  that  the  proposed  activities   directly  support  the  identified  business  objectives.           In  crafting  an  activation  plan,  an  integrated  approach  (360°  activation)  offers  the  opportunity  to   communicate  through  individual  and  coordinated  touch-­‐points  over  an  extended  period  of  time,   addressing  a  degree  of  media  fragmentation  from  inception.   While  promoting  awareness  of  the  partnership  may  be  an  important  component  to  the  brand’s  goals,   ‘badging,’  or  sponsorship  leveraging  that  simply  displays  the  brand’s  logo  on  a  club  jersey,  event   collateral  or  on  banners  around  the  venue,  should  not  be  considered  activation.   All  too  often,  the  environment  and  experience   of  a  sponsored  property  is  too  frenetic  for   passive  logo  displays  to  make  a  significant   impact  on  the  audience,  especially  considering   that  the  brand’s  presence  is  only  one  amongst   several.  Badging  is  a  disruption  that  diminishes   the  audience’s  experience  with  the  event.     The  best  partnerships  are  when  both  parties  sign  the   contract  and  then  put  it  away  in  a  drawer  and  get  on   with  activating  it,  remembering  what  the  reasons  for   the  deal  were  in  the  first  place.       Marketing  Director,  Sport  Rights  Holder   Youth  is  so  much  about  doing  it  in  a  credible  way  –  not  being  in  their  face  or  too   commercial.  Young  people  look  at  our  partners  who  have  been  around  since  the   beginning  as  brands  that  “get”  them  and  understand  their  lifestyle,  music,   sports.  We  work  with  our  partners  to  come  across  in  the  most  credible  way   possible,  as  brands  that  are  helping  support  the  sports  that  [youth]  are  into.                                                                 Head  of  Partnerships,  Sports  Rights  Holder  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   10   Case Study | Carling Beer Improving the festival guest experience through creative brand activation   A  long-­‐standing  presence  at  live  music  events,  Carling  created  a  unique  way  to  weave   the  brand  into  the  summer  festival  tradition  beginning  in  2003.    Noting  that  an  inevitable,  but  unpleasant   aspect  of  the  festival  goers'  experience  was  the  warming  of  one's  beer  in  the  sun,  Carling  created  a   memorable  integration  called  'Beer  Amnesty.'   The  goal  was  simple:  encourage  product  trial  and  conversion  by  getting  as  many  ice-­‐cold  Carlings  as  possible   into  the  hands  of  as  many  people  as  possible  who  are  loyal  to  other  brands,  at  a  time  and  a  place  when  they   would  consider  a  change.  The  concept  focused  on  a  beer  swap  at  various  summer  festivals  where  Carling   replaced  attendees’  warm,  unopened  cans  of  beer  (regardless  of  brand)  with  an  ice-­‐cold  can  of  Carling  –  free   of  charge.     The  campaign  resulted  in  the  distribution  of   nearly  4000  cases  of  beer  per  weekend,  and   reached  over  250,000  people  across  a  festival   season.  The  campaign  was  so  successful  that   it  was  repeated  annually  for  years.   Building  on  the  original  concept,  Carling   continued  to  imagine  unique  ways  to  indulge   fans.    Starting  in  2007,  the  company  organized  extremely  intimate  performances  for  a  handful  of  lucky  music   lovers  (approximately  seven  each  session)  from  the  back  of  a  chilled  Carling  fridge  truck  prior  to  a  band's   festival  performance.      That  year,  The  Maccabees  performed  a  “Strike  Cold  Session”  at  Reading  Festival.    At   the  2008  Rock  Ness  Festival,  Carling  staged  a  surprise  live  acoustic  set  by  Andy  Burrows  of  the  band   Razorlight.                 After  years  of  success  at  festivals,  in  2008,  Carling  took  the  concept  mobile  for  a  tie-­‐in  at  retail.  Over  the  warm   summer  months,  the  Carling  Beer  Amnesty  truck  visited  Asda  stores,  offering  shoppers  the  opportunity  to   swap  packs  of  just-­‐purchased  beer  for  chilled  Carling  as  they  left  the  store.    
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   11   Furthermore,  awareness  of  the  brand  name  or  logo  has  little  value  if  the  consumer  is  unfamiliar  with   the  product  or  service,  brand  ethos  or  value  proposition.  The  best  activations  weave  the  brand’s   presence  into  the  property  in  a  way  that  showcases  its  value  proposition,  seamlessly  engaging  with   consumers  and  making  the  best  aspects  of  the  experience  better  or  reducing  the  negative  aspects  of   the  experience.  For  example,  Carling  recognised  that  one  of  the  undesirable  results  of  a  beautiful   sunny  day  at  a  music  festival  is  the  inevitable  warming  of  one’s  beer  and  used  their  sponsorship  of   various  music  festivals  as  an  opportunity  to  ensure  that  guests  always  had  a  cold  Carling  to  hand.     By  considering  the  various  means  through  which  the  target  audience  consumes  the  property  (i.e.  on   site,  at  home,  in  print  or  online,  broadcast  or  internet  videos),  a  seamless  narrative  or  experience  can   be  created.     However,  as  with  any  campaign,  not  all  marketing  tactics  will  be  appropriate  and  brands  must  choose   those  that  best  integrate  with  the  property,  meet  the  goals,  budget  and  timeline.   Ÿ Establish  Evaluation  Metrics   At  this  early  stage  in  planning  the   strategy,  the  organisation  should  also   create  evaluation  metrics  against  the   defined  strategic  objectives.      From  these   metrics,  the  organisation  can  sketch  out  a   rough  roadmap  for  the  sponsorship  by   clearly  defining  standards  for  success.   These  standards  can  be  communicated  to  all  involved  in  the  sponsorship,  encouraging  shared   momentum  towards  achieving  goals.  It  will  also  be  helpful  to  embed  regular  evaluation  points,  so  that   misguided  or  faltering  efforts  can  be  detected  early,  thereby  allowing  for  responsiveness  to  changes   in  the  strategy  or  market  environment.       Ÿ Rights  and  Assets  Negotiation   Rights  and  assets  should  be  negotiated  specifically  to  support  the  needs  of  the  activation  plan.  This   will  guarantee  the  brand  has  access  to  the  required  raw  materials  to  execute  the  plan;  it  will  also   allow  the  rights  holder  to  sell  unused  rights  and  assets  to  other  partners,  rather  than  going  unused   entirely.  As  addressed  in  the  next  section,  the  most  impactful  assets  will  likely  be  those  that  are   collaboratively  designed.   Fit  with  a  property’s  other  partners  is  important  as  well.    Once  a  partnership  is  established,  the  brand  should   consider  the  ramifications  of  affiliation  with  brands  that  become  connected  to  it  through  that  partnership.  If   there  is  a  collective  fit,  reframing  the  original  partnership  into  a  networked  relationship  may  offer   opportunities  for  multi-­‐way  value  creation.         That’s  really  what  partnerships  are  all  about:  giving   someone  the  experience  that  they  want,  rather  than  the   one  we  think  they  might  want.  That’s  what  the   partnership  enables.  There  is  a  role  to  be  played,  but  it’s   one  that  enhances  viewers’  experience  and  enhances   their  view  of  the  brand.  If  you  can’t  do  either  of  those,   then  just  don’t  go  there.                                                                 Entertainment  Director,  Marketing  Agency   Encourage Reciprocity   True  partnerships  are  based  in  reciprocity.  Reciprocity  acknowledges  that  brand  value  –  positive  and  negative   -­‐-­‐  flows  both  ways  and  that  both  partners  are  responsible  for  and  judged  by  the  sponsorship’s  outcomes.       A  true  partnership  relationship  ensures  that  the  strategic  goals  of  both  parties  are  viewed  as  equally   important.  Partners  are  empowered  to  achieve  their  own  goals  by  utilising  the  assets  of  the  other  partner  or    
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   12   collaborate  to  create  new  assets  as  needed.  Based  on  reciprocity,  the  sponsor-­‐rights  holder  relationship   becomes  a  marketing  alliance  rather  than  a  transactional  arrangement.   Reciprocity  also  allows  for  flexibility.  In  the  fast-­‐paced  and  ever-­‐changing  market  environment,  the   partnership  must  remain  flexible  enough  to  evolve  its  strategy  and  deliver  resources  as  needed.    By  avoiding  a   rigidly  defined  set  of  available  assets,  partners  can  take  advantage  of  appropriate  opportunities  swiftly  as  they   arise.     Case Study | London 2012 Olympics Lloyds TSB, Visa Europe and Samsung m-commerce three-way partnership   The  London  2012  Olympic  Games  offers  an  excellent  example  of  a  three-­‐way  strategic  partnership  between   Lloyds  TSB,  Visa  Europe  and  Samsung  to  pioneer  mobile  phone  commerce  (m-­‐commerce)  contact-­‐less   payments.    The  service  was  made  available  via  a  specific  Samsung  handset,  linked  to  a  Lloyds  TSB  bank   account  with  transactions  processed  by  Visa.  Provided  complementary  to  Visa-­‐sponsored  athletes,  the   handset  was  also  available  for  consumers  to  purchase  along  with  a  Visa-­‐enabled  SIM  card.    The  service  was   first  introduced  during  the  run-­‐up  to  the  games,  and  could  be  used  at  retailers  in  and  out  of  the  Olympic   Village  for  speedy,  low-­‐value  payments.  In  the  ten  weeks  leading  up  to  and  including  the  Games,  the  number   of  contactless  transactions  in  the  UK  doubled  according  to  Visa  Europe;  during  the  Games,  Olympic  venues   accounted  for  15%  of  contactless  transactions  in  the  UK. The  three  Olympic  sponsors  leveraged  the  2012  Games  as  a  globally  relevant  backdrop  to  showcase  the   power  of  mobile  payments.  The  program  positioned  each  brand  as  an  innovator  and  key  player  in  the   transformation  of  retail  purchasing  and  payments,  while  contributing  directly  to  the  divergent,  but  synergistic   strategic  objectives  of  each  partner:  Lloyds  TSB  supported  the  commercial  launch  of  its  m-­‐payments  service;   Samsung  continued  to  demonstrate  its  positioning  as  technological  leader,  while  also  supporting  demand  and   sell-­‐through  of  Samsung  mobile  handsets;  and  Visa  Europe  was  confirmed  as  the  go-­‐to  choice  for  customers   interested  in  accessing  pioneering  products  and  services,  while  executing  millions  of  transactions  during  the   Olympic  Games.  By  2020,  Visa  expects  that  nearly  50%  of  all  network  transactions  will  be  conducted  via   mobile.   All  three  partners  centred  their  brand  in  the  discussions  regarding   mobile  innovation  at  a  time  when  many  organisations  are  looking  to   increase  their  brand  awareness  through  mobile  and  Smartphone   applications  and  associated  products.  The  partnership  also  offered  a   natural  launching  point  for  dialogue  in  the  media  as  each  step  of  the   partnership  was  developed  and  publically  announced.    
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   13     Sponsorship as a Marketing Alliance   A  marketing  alliance  yields  benefits  for  both  partners  through  collaboration  and  a  focus  on  creating  new   value  together.  This  is  in  contrast  to  a  relationship  existing  solely  for  straight  exchange  of  value,  in  which  one   or  both  organisations  get  back  something  in  exchange  for  what  they  put  in  (for  example,  revenue  exchanged   for  rights  access).   Elevating  a  sponsorship  relationship  to  a  marketing   alliance  may  offer  a  sustainable  competitive   advantage  by  providing:   • Mutual  value  through  collaboration  and   access  to  the  assets  and  capabilities  of  the   other.    Both  organisations  realize  a   contribution  to  superior  customer  value,   advancement  towards  strategic  goals,   and/or  reduction  of  costs.     • Durability  created  through  mutual  commitment,  that  is,  the  recognition  by  each  partner  that  the   other  brings  unique  assets  and  capabilities  (and  those  gained  or  created  from  the  interplay  between   partners)  that  will  enable  the  alliance  to  accomplish  objectives  neither  can  do  alone.     • Barriers  to  imitation  preventing  competitors  from  duplicating  these  assets  and  capabilities  because   they  are  created  by  collaboration  between  two  unique  entities.    Contributions  from  different  entities   would  arguably  create  different  assets/capabilities.     • First  mover  advantage  created  because  alliance  partners  may  be  better  able  to  respond  to  the   quickly  evolving  market  and  intense  competition,  and  can  generate  tailored  resources  to  deflect   challenges  and  capitalize  on  opportunities.   Marketing  alliances  can  be  particularly  advantageous  if  strategic  goals  align,  while  competitive  goals  remain   divergent.  For  example,  a  beverage  company  and  a  football  club  may  have  similar  strategic  goals  (such  as   adding  value  to  the  consumer  offering  to  drive  sales)  and  can  work  collaboratively  to  achieve  this;  however,  a   beverage  company’s  market  offering  does  not  compete  with  that  of  a  football  club.  Additionally,  partners  are   able  to  learn  from  each  other  and  apply  learning  to  their  respective  businesses  without  jeopardizing  any   proprietary  skills.   In  order  to  develop  a  marketing  alliance,  the  parties  must  ensure  strategic  compatibility  (not  just  congruency   between  intangible  brand  elements)  and  convergence  of  goals.  Further,  the  relationship  structure  must  foster   commitment,  trust,  and  opportunities  for  both  parties  to  gain  value  from  synergies,  moving  away  from  a   transactional,  fee-­‐and-­‐ROI-­‐driven  relationship.   Equity  –  one  looks  to  be  more  scientific  about  it.  Is   there  a  benefit  to  both  parties  in  the  partnership?  Is   there  equity  in  Brand  X  that  Brand  Y  could  benefit   from  and  vice  versa,  because  then  we  have  the   foundation  of  a  partnership  that  works.  Is  there  an   area  of  business  that  the  two  can  collaborate  on  that   allows  them  to  reach  people  that  they  haven’t   reached  before?                                                                 Head  of  Partnerships,  Financial  Industry  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   14   COLLABORATE Collaboration  offers  partners  an  opportunity  to  create  shared  assets  and  activations  that  are  inherently   unique  and  that  neither  could  produce  alone.  This  is  a  key  advantage,  because  such  assets  provide  a   barrier  to  imitation.       Assets  and  activations  that  are  created  collaboratively  between  sponsor  and  rights-­‐holder  enable  the   brand  to  use  the  property  as  a  conduit  through  which  it  connects  with  the  target  audience.  This  allows   the  brand  to  create  a  bond  with  the  audience,  rather  than  simply  an  association  with  the  property.    It   also  protects  the  integrity  of  the  property,  by  ensuring  that  activations  are  a  natural  and  seamless  fit,   enhancing  the  audience’s  experience  of  the   property  rather  than  being  disruptive.   If  the  platform  is  intended  to  have  breadth,  the   parties  should  consider  and  design  amplification   methods  in  line  with  strategic  objectives.  Content   creation  and  digital  technologies  (such  as   applications  and  social  media)  all  offer   opportunities  to  amplify  or  extend  the  consumer   experience  before,  during,  and  after  activation.   Consumers  have  become  a  marketing  channel  of   their  own,  sharing  information,  experiences  and   opinions  through  social  media,  blogging  and  other   Internet  channels  -­‐-­‐  even  across  geographically  and  culturally  divergent  areas.  A  single  brand  interaction   now  has  the  potential  to  multiply  into  thousands,  effectively  creating  reach  and  cost  efficiencies.   Even  if  you’re  a  massive  organisation,  creating  a  brand   that  people  are  going  to  talk  about  and  be   ambassadors  for  in  the  real  world  is  key.  If  you  have   people  talking  about  it,  saying  it’s  amazing,  and  you   get  five  emails  from  people  who  don’t  know  each  other   talking  about  it  in  the  same  day,  that’s  when  it  gets   exciting.  There’s  just  so  much  out  there,  I  don’t  think  it   can  just  be  about  media  spend.  It  can  be  a  small   campaign,  but  if  it’s  really  clever,  there  you  go.  It’s   harder,  but  it’s  putting  a  lot  more  pressure  on   creativity  and  originality,  rather  than  money.                                                             Director,  Marketing  Agency   ACTIVATE Having  completed  the  planning  phases,  it  is  time  to  put  the  sponsorship  into  action.  As  mentioned   earlier,  activation  is  where  the  sponsorship  comes  to  life  for  the  consumer.     As  discussed  earlier,  there  are  multiple  outcomes  that  can  be  achieved  through  strategic  sponsorships   and  that  the  most  cost-­‐effective  sponsorships  will  be  focused  on  achieving  outcomes  in  more  than  one   functional  area  or  channel.  Sponsorship  activation  can  offer  the  opportunity  to  innovate  products  and   services,  differentiate  from  the  competition,  communicate  the  brand  proposition  and  invigorate  relevance  to   a  particular  segment  of  consumers,  stimulate  engagement  with  the  brand  and  offer  opportunities  and  raw   materials  for  consumers  to  co-­‐create  brand  meaning  and  value.  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   15   Case Study | LIVESTRONG (Nike) Stimulating Consumer Engagement and Co-Creation at the Tour de France   Using  Lance  Armstrong’s  2009  return  to  professional  cycling  as  a  platform,  LIVESTRONG  and  Nike  developed  a   fully-­‐integrated  campaign  to  raise  awareness  of  cancer  and  spread  messages  of  hope  and  encouragement.       The  partners  utilized  multiple  mediums  -­‐  bought,  owned  and  earned  -­‐  to  communicate  and  engage  with   consumers.       A  series  of  three  short  films  entitled  "It's  About  You"  shared  the  stories  of  pro  and  amateur  athletes  and  other   inspirational  people  -­‐-­‐  all  cancer  survivors.    The  films  aired  to  a  mass  audience,  and  culminated  in  a  dedicated   primetime  episode  of  ESPN’s  Sportscenter.  Sixty-­‐four  million  households  tuned  in.   Drawing  on  the  tradition  of  writing  inspirational  messages  with  chalk  along  the  course  of  the  Tour  de  France   to  cheer  on  riders,  LIVESTRONG  and  Nike  encouraged  a  global  audience  to  participate  and  contribute  their   own  messages  of  support  and  encouragement.   At  Lance  Armstrong’s  first  USA  competition,  the  Amgen  Tour  of  California,  and  at  all  of  Armstrong’s   subsequent  races  leading  up  to  the  Tour  de  France,  fans  received  packets  of  yellow  chalk  and  were   encouraged  to  write  notes  of  support  on  the  pavement.       Simultaneously,  social  media  networks   collected  messages  of  courage,  hope  and   action  from  an  international  audience.   These  were  then  added  to  the  physical   messages  at  the  Tour  via  a  chalk-­‐spraying   hydraulic  robot  called  Chalkbot.  Using  the   pavement  as  a  canvas,  Chalkbot  drove  in   front  of  cyclists  and  printed  messages  on   the  course.     The  vibrant  yellow  messages,  standing  out  against  the  dark  road,  were  integrated  into  the  Tour  de  France   broadcast  coverage  as  the  riders  cycled  over  them.  Each  message  contributor  received  a  GPS-­‐tagged  image   (with  LIVESTRONG  and  Nike  branding)  of  their  message  printed  on  the  course.  In  all,  36,000  messages  were   submitted  digitally  with  thousands  printed  along  the  Tour  de  France  course.  After  the  tour,  the  New  York   Times  printed  a  full-­‐page  advertisement  featuring  messages  printed  by  Chalkbot.               The  campaign  won  a  Cannes  Lion  award,  and  increased  LIVESTRONG  sales  by  46%  during  the  campaign   period.  In  addition,  the  campaign  increased  the  LIVESTRONG  Facebook  community  by  95%  and  Youtube   channel  subscribers  by  54%.  Nike  donated  $4  million  dollars  to  the  cause.  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   16   EVALUATE Sponsorships  historically  have  focused  evaluation  efforts  on  tactics,  examining  how  well  a  campaign  was   managed  rather  than  the  value  delivered  to  the  brand.       In  a  strategic  approach,  evaluation  should  always  focus  on  determining  if  pre-­‐established  objectives  have  been   met  –  that  is,  return  on  objectives  (ROO)  rather  than  return  on  investment  (ROI).    Poorly  defined  objectives   will  result  in  poor  evaluation  opportunities.     If  the  brand  has  established  actionable  evaluation  metrics  as  suggested  in  Step  1,  it  will  already  possess  a   roadmap  with  clear  measures  of  success  at  various  points.  Regular,  unbiased  evaluation  offers  the  possibility   of  honing,  re-­‐directing,  or  eliminating  efforts  that  are  not  on  track  to  achieve  the  desired  outcomes.    In   addition,  this  process  offers  the  flexibility  needed  to  respond  dynamically  to  new  information,  feedback,   emerging  technologies  and  changing  strategic  or  market  conditions.    Evaluation  also  helps  gauge  the   effectiveness  of  a  particular  property  or  communication  touch-­‐point,  and  can  be  used  to  ensure  that   investments  (rights  fees,  assets,  talent,  and  product)  remain  in  line  with  likely  returns.   Conclusion   Sponsorship  in  today’s  market  environment  is  evolving  toward  a  more  integrated  approach  than  has  been   used  in  the  past.    Strategic  sponsorship  both  responds  to,  and  capitalizes  on,  the  dynamic  current  market   context  and  offers  a  competitive  advantage  in  this  context.       The  five-­‐step  methodology  outlined  above  is  designed  to  give  marketers  a  flexible,  integrative  and  responsive   approach  to  designing  strategic  sponsorships.    Based  in  solid  research  and  illustrated  with  exciting  real-­‐world   examples,  this  methodology  is  a  practical  process  for  marketers  seeking  to  create  innovative  applications  of  a   time-­‐honoured  marketing  instrument.        
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   17   Additional  Resources  and  Further  Reading       Service-­‐Dominant  Logic  |  Robert  Lusch  and  Stephen  Vargo  |  http://sdlogic.net/index.html     Last  Generation  Sponsorship  |  Kim  Skildum-­‐Reid,  Power  Sponsorship|  http://www.powersponsorship.com/free-­‐ stuff.html?re=1/LastGenerationSponsorship.pdf     Co-­‐creation:  New  pathways  to  value  |Promise  Communispace  |   http://www.promisecorp.com/documents/COCREATION_REPORT.pdf     Defining  Sponsorship  |  Shaun  Whatling,  Richard  Gillis,  Red  Mandarin  |  http://www.amazon.co.uk/Defining-­‐Sponsorship-­‐Shaun-­‐ Whatling/dp/0956178405     Brands  and  Music  Manifesto,  Frukt  Source  |  Frukt|  Report  available  by  request  from  Frukt,  http://www.wearefrukt.com/source     Additional  resources  available  upon  request  from  the  author  and  listed  in  full  research  report.   Acknowledgements     The  research  outlined  in  this  report  is  a  summary  of  the  findings  reported  in  detail  in  “A   Strategic   Sponsorship   Approach  to   Building  Brands  in  a  Service-­‐Dominant  Logic  World,”  Henley  Business  School,  MBA  Management  Challenge  (©2010),  the  result   of   research   into   best   practice   strategic   sponsorship   approaches.   The   qualitative   research   involved   over   20   organisations,   including  leading  brands,  agencies  and  rights  holders.  The  full  research  paper  is  available  upon  request  from  the  author  or  the   Henley  Business  School  Academic  Research  Centre.   The  author  would  like  to  acknowledge  the  contribution  of  the  director  and  board  level  professionals  who  participated  in  this   research,  offering  diverse  perspectives  into  the  challenges  and  opportunities  of  the  industry  from  a  variety  of  leading  brands,   agencies  and  rights  holders,  including:                 Furthermore,  the  author  would  like  to  acknowledge  Dr.  Baskin  Yenicioglu  of  Henley  Business  School  for  his  support  and  guidance   in  completing  this  research.     chelsafc.com  anomaly.com  allisports.com  aegworldwide.com  2cv.com   iris-­‐worldwide.com  sponsorship.com  wearefrukt.com  fasttrack.com  essentiallygroup.com   nba.com  mskmanagement.com  london-­‐irish.com  lloydstsb.com  jackmorton.com   redmandarin.com  prismteam.com  performanceresearch.com  pepsico.com  octagon.com   wolffolins.com  visa.com  unilever.com  synergysponsorship.com  
    • Blueprint  for  Strategic  Sponsorship   18             About  Janus  Kodadek     Janus  Kodadek  is  a  senior  marketing  professional  with  12  years  of  experience  in  marketing  and  communications  strategy  in  the   sport,  fashion  and  FMCG  (consumer  goods)  industries.  With  expertise  in  integrated  marketing,  orchestrating  offline/traditional   and  digital  channels  to  build  brands  and  engage  consumers,  Janus  has  worked  with  high  profile  brands  including  Nike,  Glaceau   Vitaminwater,  Pepsi,  Heineken  and  presently  works  as  an  Industry  Manager  for  Google,  where  she  develops  brand  and   performance  strategies  for  EMEA  clients.       +44  7717  806  142  (mobile)  |  jkodadek@gmail.com  |  linkedin.com/in/jkodadek   Case  study  sources|  Case  studies  included  were  developed  from  research  respondents  examples  of’  ‘best  in  class’  and  ‘innovative’   sponsorship  campaigns     All  creative  assets,  trademarks,  service  marks,  intellectual  property  and  copyrighted  materials  remain  the  property  of  the  copyright  owner  and  are   provided  within  this  report  for  reference  purposes  only.     Gatorade  REPLAY     Agency:  TBWAChiatDay   http://www.gatorade.com   http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/analysis/1158391/   http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid1125919467?bctid=76509638001   http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/jun/22/gatorade-­‐ad-­‐awards-­‐cannes-­‐lions   Carling  Beer  Amnesty    Agency:  Cake   http://www.carling.com   http://www.cakegroup.com/music-­‐pr/case_Study/Carling-­‐Music.html   http://www.linkcommunication.co.uk/case_studies_office_workers_carling.html   http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/analysis/1127631/   London  2012  Olympics   http://www.visaeurope.com   http://www.lloydstsb.com   http://www.samsung.com   http://www.visaeurope.com/en/newsroom/news/articles/2012/contactless_payments_at_london.aspx   http://www.mobiletoday.co.uk/News/14144/Samsung_and_Visa_unveil_London_2012_Olympics_mobile_payment_app.aspx     http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2012/jan/19/contactless-­‐wave-­‐pay-­‐revolution   http://www.engadget.com/2012/05/09/samsung-­‐and-­‐visa-­‐olympic-­‐payment-­‐announcement/   Nike  LIVESTRONG   “Chalkbot”     Agency:  Wieden  +  Kennedy   http://www.nike.com   http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/jun/24/cannes-­‐lions-­‐cyber-­‐nike-­‐chalkbot   www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Jb-­‐KT4r6NY     http://www.deeplocal.com/projects/10