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2013 insect update fall ext conf jan compressed

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Update on field crop insect pest problems in North Dakota in 2013.

Update on field crop insect pest problems in North Dakota in 2013.

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  • 1. Review of Insect Problems in Field Crops in 2013 Janet Knodel, Venkata Chapara and Patrick Beauzay Extension Entomology Fall Extension Conference October 22-25, 2013
  • 2. Forages – Alfalfa Weevil Increasing numbers in ND, especially SW, SC and NC!
  • 3. Field Damaged by Alfalfa Weevil Reduces crop yield, crop quality, protein content, and digestibility Primarily on 1st cutting Occasionally re-growth of 2nd cutting Frosted Appearance
  • 4. Alfalfa Weevil Sampling – Stem Counts • Bucket 30-stem method • Select 30 stems from 5 sites • Beat stems into bucket • Determine average # of larvae/stem (see next 2 slides) • Determine average height of alfalfa Nominal Threshold (not as accurate) IF, 30-40% damaged stems
  • 5. Alfalfa Weevil IPM in ND • Early harvest! • Do not apply insecticide unless weevils are at ECONOMIC THRESHOLD levels – Before 1st Cutting • Calculated ET for larvae/stem from 30-stem bucket method (or nominal threshold = 30-40% of stems damaged) – After 1st cutting, 50% of crowns have weevil feeding or 8 or more larvae/ft2 (6/ft2 on sandy soil); and larvae are suppressing regrowth • E1676 „IPM of Alfalfa Weevil in ND‟
  • 6. Red Sunflower Seed Weevil Adult • • • Larva Drop into soil to overwinter Increasing pressures in SC, SW and NC ND Studies with Prevathon (new sunflower insecticide) from Dupont for control of RSSW • Rynaxypyr® new mode of action • Ryanodine receptor activator (IRAC Group 28) • Active against a broad range of chewing insects 2013 data being tabulated for NSA Forum in Jan. 2014
  • 7. European Corn Borer Increasing problem in NC Region of ND where non-Bt corn is Newly laid egg mass grown Female moth Egg mass at “black-head “ stage
  • 8. European Corn Borer Tunneling ECB larva Entry hole in stalk ECB pupa in stalk
  • 9. Corn Borer Damage . . . • Shot-hole damage to whorl • Broken stalks • Dropped ears Greatest Yield Impact: physiological loss from tunneling damage that stops flow of sap, water, nutrients through stalks (> all the above combined).
  • 10. Corn Rootworms in Corn Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte Northern Corn Rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith
  • 11. Corn Rootworm - Damage ⅛-½ inch long Goose-necked Corn
  • 12. Corn Rootworm Damage This photograph was taken near Arthur, ND in 2013! Photo courtesy by Dr. Joel Ransom, NDSU Extension Cereals
  • 13. Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera • Gassmann et al. 2011 Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm PloS ONE 6(7): e22629 – Cry3Bb1 protein – Iowa – 2012 - Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska – Continuous corn > 3 years – Relied on a single Bt trait for control CRW – Increased lodging and root feeding on Bt hybrids with CRW-resistant trait
  • 14. North Dakota in 2012-2013 • Increasing numbers of adult WCRWs in SE ND • Concerned about CRW resistance to Bt corn (not been documented in ND yet) • Study funded by ND Corn Council to examine Bt-traits and efficacy against CRWs in ND – In collaboration with Dr. Ransom and Dr. Boetel
  • 15. ‘High’ Risk Corn Fields for CRW Resistance • Continuous corn for more than 3 years • Same Bt trait (e.g., Cry3Bb1) for more than 3 years • Lots of volunteer corn in soybean fields (good food source for resistant CRW)
  • 16. CRW Trap Survey in ND • Monitoring for adult CRWs • Determine species and abundance • Pherocon AM (yellow trap) • Scentry Multigard (green trap) • Mid-August to September • Results being tabulated
  • 17. Soybean Aphid • „Hot‟ spots in 2013, mainly eastern ND • ND Soybean Council Study to determine „best‟ pest management strategies: – Seed treatments (insecticides and fungicides) – Different modes of action (OP, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) for foliar insecticide application – Different timings (R1, ET of 250 aphids/plant, 100 aphids/plant) – Rag1 aphid-resistant variety • Results will be presented at “2014 Getting It Right Soybean Production Meetings” at Velva, Mohall and Wishek.
  • 18. • 2013 Wheat Midge Risk forecast was for low populations in 2013 due in part to drought of 2012 • 2013 soil samples are being collected for laboratory counting of cocoons
  • 19. New Insect Pest Detections in 2013 • Spotted wing Drosophila (see next slide) • Japanese Beetle – Not detected in pheromone traps (not overwintering) – Re-introduced again in 2013 from trucks from MN nursery with JB-infested nursery stock – Stark, Burleigh, Ward, Grand Forks and Cass • Cereal Leaf Beetle – Confirmed in 3 new counties • Ward County at NCREC in Minot, Burke County near Flaxton, and Renville County near Mohall – Export concern of cereal hay to Canada and CA
  • 20. Spotted-wing Drosophila (fruit fly) • First detection in CA in 2008 • Attacks healthy fruits – Raspberries – Strawberries – Other soft & hard fruits • Confirmed in ND in 2013 – 13 counties so far – Burke, Burleigh, Cass, Cavalier, Grand Forks, Foster, Stark, Logan, McLean, Mercer, Morton, Pembina, Stark
  • 21. Protect our Pollinators! New EPA Bee Advisory Box on pesticide labels to help protect pollinators
  • 22. „New‟ Extension Publications • E1676 IPM of Alfalfa Weevil in ND • E1640 Dry Bean Grower Survey of Production, Pest Problems and Pesticide Use in MN and ND • E1143 ND Field Crop Insect Management Guide • PP1635 Dutch Elm Disease in ND: A New Look • A1636 Growing Lentils in ND • E1634 Emerald Ash Borer Biology and IPM in ND • E1631 IPM of Japanese Beetle in ND
  • 23. Upcoming Extension Entomology Publications • • • • • • • • Spotted wing Drosophila European Corn Borer (revised) Corn Rootworms Spider mites in Soybean, Dry Bean and Field Corn Cereal Leaf Beetle (revised) Honey bee & pesticide safety (revised) Grasshoppers (revised) Wireworms (revised)
  • 24. NDSU Crop & Pest Report • Free to subscribers with email but MUST SIGN-UP ON WEBSITE!!! (Do not need to re-sign up if you subscribed in 2013) • Remember to sign-up and encourage others! – http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr/
  • 25. Thank you!