Denotation and ConnotationThe relationship between words and meanings isextremely complicated, and belongs to the field ofsemantics. For now, though, what you need to know isthat words do not have single, simple meanings.Traditionally, grammarians have referred to themeanings of words in two parts:Denotation•a literal meaning of the wordConnotation•an association (emotional or otherwise) which the wordevokes.
For example, both "woman" and "chick" havethe denotation "adult female" in NorthAmerican society, but "chick" has somewhatnegative connotations, while "woman" isneutral.For another example of connotations, considerthe following:•Negative There are over 2,000 vagrants in thecity.•Neutral There are over 2,000 people with nofixed address in the city.•Positive There are over 2,000 homeless in thecity.
Pragmatics is…The study of the aspects of meaning and language use that are dependent on the speaker, the addressee and other features of the context.The effect that the following have on how something is expressed and how it is interpreted:• Context• Generally observed principles of communication• The goals of the speaker
blackadjective1. lacking hue and brightness; absorbing light without reflecting any of the rayscomposing it.2. characterized by absence of light; enveloped in darkness: a black night.3. (sometimes initial capital letter)a. pertaining or belonging to any of the various populations characterized by darkskin pigmentation, specifically the dark-skinned peoples of Africa, Oceania, andAustralia.b. African-American.4. soiled or stained with dirt: That shirt was black within an hour.5. gloomy; pessimistic; dismal: a black outlook.6. deliberately; harmful; inexcusable: a black lie.7. boding ill; sullen or hostile; threatening: black words; black looks.8. (of coffee or tea) without milk or cream.9. without any moral quality or goodness; evil; wicked: His black heart hasconcocted yet another black deed.10. indicating censure, disgrace, or liability to punishment: a black mark on onesrecord.
11. marked by disaster or misfortune: black areas of drought; BlackFriday.12. wearing black or dark clothing or armour: the black prince.13. based on the grotesque, morbid, or unpleasant aspects of life:black comedy; black humour.14. (of a check mark, flag, etc.) done or written in black to indicate, ason a list, that which is undesirable, sub-standard, potentiallydangerous, etc.: Pilots put a black flag next to the ten most dangerousairports.15. illegal or underground: The black economy pays no taxes.16. showing a profit; not showing any losses: the first black quarter intwo years.17. deliberately false or intentionally misleading: black propaganda.18. British . boycotted, as certain goods or products by a trade union.19. (of steel) in the form in which it comes from the rolling mill orforge; unfinished.
noun20. the colour at one extreme end of the scale of grays, oppositeto white, absorbing all light incident upon it. Compare white( def. 19 ) .21. ( sometimes initial capital letter ) a. a member of any ofvarious dark-skinned peoples, especially those of Africa,Oceania, and Australia.b. African-American.22. black clothing, especially as a sign of mourning: He woreblack at the funeral.23. Chess, Checkers . the dark-colored men or pieces or squares.24. black pigment: lamp black.25. Slang . black beauty.26. a horse or other animal that is entirely black.
Synonyms for black:Dark Most powerfulObscureShadowyGloomyMurkyDuskyDim Least powerful
Presupposition: background knowledge or belief of knowledgeThe utterance John regrets that he stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge has the following presuppositions:• There is someone uniquely identifiable to speaker and addressee as John.• John stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.• John was doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.• John left Cambridge.• John had been at Cambridge.
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