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# Final Study Guide

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• 1. Science Final Study Guide – McClung Hypothesis – An educated guess….in other words, your prediction of a given experiment Data – Information collected from your experiment Conclusion – The point in the scientific method when you decide if your hypothesis was correct or incorrect. Controls – The part of the experiment that is kept the same throughout. This could be a measurement or procedure. They are not part of the experiment, but are there to act as a comparison. Variable – When you are trying to see what the effect of changing one “thing” will have on another “thing”….these “things” are the variables, this is what we test in an experiment. Manipulative Variable – The variable that is changed/manipulated during the experiment. (Sometimes called the dependant variable) Responding Variable – This is the variable that is expected to change as a result of the q manipulated variable. (Sometimes called the dependant variable) Qualitative Observations - An observation about the quality of an event, action, or “thing”. • The shape of an object • The smell of an object. • It is rainy outside. Quantitative Observations - An observation about the quantity of an event, action, or “thing”. It usually involves numerical descriptions. • There are five dogs. • It has rained 2cm in the past 1 hr. • The car is traveling at 110 km/hr. An inference is an educated guess based off of previous knowledge. If I see boiling water on TV I infer that it is hot, even thought I cannot feel it, because I have felt it in the past. Operational Definition – Identifies one or more specific observable conditions or events and then tells the researcher how to measure….basically, it’s how you define what you’re looking for in an experiment. SI Units Deca=100 Kilo=10 Gram, meter, or liter = 1
• 2. Deci= 0.1 Centi=0.01 Milli=0.001 Gregor Mendel – Known as the “Father of Genetics”, also famous for his pea plant experiment Pea Plant Experiment - Mendel crossed a short pea plant with a tall and found that all the offspring were tall (F1 Generation) - Mendel then took the offspring from the F1 Generation and cross bred them again, and found that the next generation, F2, had a 25% chance of producing a short plant. Genes – Factors that control traits. Probability – A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur. Alleles – A set of letters that represent a genetic combination Genotype – Is the genetic makeup of an organism….in other words, it is the allele combination. Phenotype – The physical appearance of an organism. Example – Tall with brown hair. Dominate Trait – A trait that is always present when passed on to an offspring…..always overshadows the weaker recessive trait. Example – Brown hair is dominate over red hair. Recessive Trait – Is not always present in the offspring that it is passed on to. The only way a recessive trait can be visible is if it is paired with the same recessive trait. Example – Red hair = rr Punnett Square – Is a square used to show the probability of all possible genetic combinations Heterozygous Allele Combination – A combination where the alleles are the same (AA)
• 3. Homozygous Allele Combination – A combination where the alleles are different from each other (Aa) Hybrid – An offspring that is a combination of two different parent traits Purebred – An offspring that has homozygous allele combinations Incomplete Dominance – Is when two dominate traits are crossed and produce an offspring that has a mixture of the two traits. Example – Red flower + white flower = pink flower Codominance – When to dominate traits are crossed and both traits are visible in the offspring. Example – Black and white chickens. Life Science Cell – Basic unit of life Unicellular Organism – A organism that is composed on only one cell Multi-cellular Organism – Organisms are composed of many cells Characteristics of Life: - Energy Use - Response to Surroundings - Growth and Development - Reproduction - Exchange of gas Autotrophs – Organisms that produce their own food Hetrotrophs – Relay on other organisms to obtain their energy Classification – Is the process of grouping things based on their similarities. Taxonomy – The study of how things are classified Dichotomous Key – A series of statements about characteristics of organisms that help identify organisms. Domains and Kingdoms – Organisms are placed into domains and kingdoms based on their cell type, their ability to make food, and the number of cells in their bodies. - There are three domains o Bacteria – Which consist of prokaryotes whose lack a nucleus. o Archaea – Are very similar to bacteria, but they are differences between the two in their structure and chemical makeup of their cells.
• 4. o Eukarya – Organisms in this domain are eukaryotes, meaning that their cells have a nucleus. - There are six kingdoms of life o Bacteria o Archaea o Protists (Eukarya) o Fungi (Eukarya) o Plants (Eukarya) o Animals (Eukarya) Flagella – Small hair-like structures that microscopic organisms use for their movement (whip- like) Cilia – Small hair-like structures that are very tiny and surround the organism’s structure. Their movement is very fluid and effortless.