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Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
Knowledge based systems -- introduction
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Knowledge based systems -- introduction

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  • 1. Knowledge-Based Systems: Introduction Richard Dybowski 5 Feb 2008 Russell & Norvig (2003), Chapter 1
  • 2. Aims● To understand the concept of AI in termsof a rational agent● To appreciate AIs history and ability
  • 3. Artificial Intelligence (AI)AI attempts not just to understand how we think butalso to build intelligent entities by attempting tosystemise and automate intellectual tasks.AI encompasses many subjects from general-purpose areas, such as learning and perception, tospecific tasks such as playing chess anddiagnosing diseases.
  • 4. Publics perception of AI “2001: A Space Odyssey”“Artificial Intelligence: AI” “Halo 3”
  • 5. “But what exactly is AI?”There are different answersto this question (depending on who you ask)
  • 6. Russell & Norvig (2003) classification of eight AIdefinitions: A rational system does the “right thing” given what it knows
  • 7. The “rational agent” approachBest approach because:(a) More general than “laws of thought approach”because rationality is not only about correct inference(b) More amenable to scientific development thanapproaches based on human behaviour or humanthought
  • 8. History of AIGestation (1943 – 1955):McCulloc & Pitts (1943) – artificial neuronsHebbian learning (1949)Turing test (1950)Birth of AI (1956):1956 Workshop at Dartmouth CollegeEarly enthusiasm (1952-1969):Many limited successes; e.g., General Theorem Prover,LISP, microworld problem solvers
  • 9. History of AI (continued)A dose of reality (1966 – 1973):Early systems failed on more difficult problemsKnowledge-based systems (1969 – present):DENDRAL (1099); MYCIN (1980); etcAI becomes an industry (1980 - present):R1 (1982) - first commercial expert systembut followed by “AI Winter”Return of neural networks (1986 - present):Back-propagation building algorithm (1986)
  • 10. History of AI (continued)AI becomes a science (1987 – present):● Scientific method adopted● Common to build on existing theories● Claims based on rigorous theorems or hardexperimental evidence● Relevant to real-world applicationsThe emergence of intelligent agents (1995 – present):“Bots” on the Internet
  • 11. The state of the artWhat can AI do today?Examples:● Machine planning; e.g. NASAs Remote Agent (2000) –monitors spacecraft operations● IBMs Deep Blue (1997) – beat Kasparov● Lymphatic cancer diagnosis (1991) – beat an expert!

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