Business ManagementStudy Manuals business growthDiploma inBusiness ManagementORGANISATIONALBEHAVIOURThe Association of Business Executives
iDiploma in Business ManagementORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURContentsUnit Title PageIntroduction to the Study Manual iiiSyllabus vIntro An Introduction to Organisational Behaviour 1 Introduction 2 What Is an Organisation 3 Organisational Goals 7 The Structure of Organisations 13 Management 211 The Development of Management Thought 33 Introduction 34 The Classical School of Management and Organisation 35 Bureaucracy 38 Behavioural. Limitations in a Changing World 42 Systems Theory 48 Contingency Theories 54 Contemporary Theories 562 Organisational Behaviour and its Importance to Management 61 Introduction 62 What Is Organisational Behaviour? 62 Human Relations School 65 Organisational Structures and Culture 68 Influencing Organisational Behaviour 773 The Individual and the Organisation 83 Introduction 84 The Individuals Contribution to the Organisation 84 Approaches to Studying Personality 86 Measurement of Personality 93 Difficulties in Studying Personality 94 The Process and Principles of Perception 964 Attitudes, Learning, Stress and the Problems of the Individual 107 Introduction 108 The Significance of Attitudes 108 Attitude Change and the Impact of Behavioural Issues 111 The Learning Process 114 Understanding Stress 120 The Individual in Work Roles 124
ii Unit Title Page 5 Motivation Theories and their Implications for Management 131 Introduction 132 The Development of Thinking on Motivation 132 Needs and Motivation 135 Herzbergs Motivators and Hygiene Factors 141 Models of Behaviour 144 Process Theories 147 Implications of Motivation Theory 151 6 The Nature and Meaning of Job Satisfaction 157 Introduction 158 The Concept of Morale 158 Job Satisfaction and Performance 161 Sources of Frustration and Alienation at Work 163 Approaches to Improving Job Design 165 Re-Designing the Working Environment 172 7 The Nature and Significance of Groups in Organisations 191 Introduction 192 What Is a Group? 192 The Process of Group Development 201 Characteristics of Workgroups 203 Roles and Skills for Effective Group Performance 212 The Nature of Team Spirit and Characteristics of Effective Teams 217 8 Leadership 225 Introduction 226 Leadership or Management? 226 The Nature of Leadership and the Exercise of Power and Authority 228 Leadership Traits and Leadership Styles 236 Situational Theory 246 Leadership Effectiveness 250 9 Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Organisations 253 Introduction 254 The Nature of Conflict 254 The Causes of Conflict 256 Management of Conflict 259 Strategies for Resolving Conflict 260 Structures and Procedures for Conflict Resolution 264 10 Communication Processes and Barriers 273 Introduction 274 The Nature and Scope of Communication 274 The Communication Process 277 Group Communication and Management Networking 281 Barriers to Effective Communication 285 Formal and Informal Communication Systems 287 The Basics of Effective Communication 294
iiiIntroduction to the Study ManualWelcome to this study manual for Organisational Behaviour.The manual has been specially written to assist you in your studies for the ABE Diploma inBusiness Management and is designed to meet the learning outcomes specified for thismodule in the syllabus. As such, it provides a thorough introduction to each subject area andguides you through the various topics which you will need to understand. However, it is notintended to "stand alone" as the only source of information in studying the module, and weset out below some guidance on additional resources which you should use to help inpreparing for the examination.The syllabus for the module is set out on the following pages and you should read thiscarefully so that you understand the scope of the module and what you will be required toknow for the examination. Also included in the syllabus are details of the method ofassessment – the examination – and the books recommended as additional reading.The main study material then follows in the form of a number of study units as shown in thecontents. Each of these units is concerned with one topic area and takes you through all thekey elements of that area, step by step. You should work carefully through each study unit inturn, tackling any questions or activities as they occur, and ensuring that you fully understandeverything that has been covered before moving on to the next unit. You will also find it veryhelpful to use the additional reading to develop your understanding of each topic area whenyou have completed the study unit.Additional resources ABE website – www.abeuk.com. You should ensure that you refer to the Members Area of the website from time to time for advice and guidance on studying and preparing for the examination. We shall be publishing articles which provide general guidance to all students and, where appropriate, also give specific information about particular modules, including updates to the recommended reading and to the study units themselves. Additional reading – It is important you do not rely solely on this manual to gain the information needed for the examination on this module. You should, therefore, study some other books to help develop your understanding of the topics under consideration. The main books recommended to support this manual are included in the syllabus which follows, but you should also refer to the ABE website for further details of additional reading which may be published from time to time. Newspapers – You should get into the habit of reading a good quality newspaper on a regular basis to ensure that you keep up to date with any developments which may be relevant to the subjects in this module. Your college tutor – If you are studying through a college, you should use your tutors to help with any areas of the syllabus with which you are having difficulty. That is what they are there for! Do not be afraid to approach your tutor for this module to seek clarification on any issue, as they will want you to succeed as much as you want to. Your own personal experience – The ABE examinations are not just about learning lots of facts, concepts and ideas from the study manual and other books. They are also about how these are applied in the real world and you should always think how the topics under consideration relate to your own work and to the situation at your own workplace and others with which you are familiar. Using your own experience in this way should help to develop your understanding by appreciating the practical application and significance of what you read, and make your studies relevant to your personal development at work. It should also provide you with examples which can be used in your examination answers.
ivAnd finally …We hope you enjoy your studies and find them useful not just for preparing for theexamination, but also in understanding the modern world of business and in developing inyour own job. We wish you every success in your studies and in the examination for thismodule.The Association of Business ExecutivesSeptember 2008
vi 4. Understand the goals, expectations and roles of individuals within organisations 4.1 Examine the significance of attitudes, their formation, functions and measurement 4.2 Explain the principles and problems associated with attitude change and describe the impact of behavioural issues on attitudes 4.3 Identify the internal and external factors relevant to the learning process 4.4 Compare classical and operant conditioning 4.5 Examine chain and cyclical theories of learning and discuss their effectiveness 4.6 Identify the nature and causes of stress and understand the links with personality. Discuss the role of the manager in handling stressful situations 4.7 Describe the problems of individuals in work roles, the conflicts that might arise and means available to realise expectations and improved performance 5. Understand the nature and meaning of motivation and examine a variety of content and process theories together with their implications for management 5.1 Define motivation and its examine early developments 5.2 Explain individual behaviour through ‘need theories’ (Maslow, McClelland, Alderfer), motivation and hygiene (Herzberg) and other behavioural models (McGregor, Schein) 5.3 Compare and contrast content with process theories including expectancy, equity and goal setting approaches 5.4 Discuss the implications for management of different theories (including job design) 5.5 Examine the problems of motivation and links to job satisfaction, morale and effectiveness 6. Explain the nature and meaning of job satisfaction, its relationship to work performance and the various approaches designed to improve it 6.1 Explain the concept of morale: its nature, measurement, consequences and means of achieving it 6.2 Examine the concept of job satisfaction and its relationship with performance 6.3 Identify sources and reactions to frustration and alienation at work 6.4 Examine the main approaches to improving job design and the principles involved 6.5 Discuss more recent developments in re-designing the working environment (e.g. tele-working, flexibility, autonomous work groups)