Assistive Technology for Library Users Who AreDeaf or Hard-of-Hearing Justine MaedaLIS 670: Introduction to Information Science and Technology August 5, 2011
Overview• Definitions• Identifying the Deaf• Deaf History and Laws• Current and Local Library Technologies for the Deaf Community• Implications for Libraries• Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community• Newer Library Technologies for the Deaf Community
Definition: “disability”Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) definition:A. A physical or mental impairment thatsubstantially limits one or more of the major lifeactivities of the individualB. A record of such an impairment;C. Being regarded as having such an impairment
Definition: “deafness”• “deafness” -- a physical condition characterized by a relative lack of auditory sensitivity to sound compared to the species norm. (Ladd, Patty)• Deafness vs. deafness• "hearing-impaired” – refers to people with a less than severe hearing loss or people who acquired deafness in adulthood as opposed to have grown up deaf. (Ladd, Patty)
Identifying the Deaf• According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hard-of-hearing people in the U.S. -- roughly 10 percent of the total population.• Within the actual ranks of deaf people, more than half reportedly use American Sign Language (ASL) on a regular basis.
Identifying the Deaf (2)Deaf People• Born Deaf or deafened before acquiring speech, often to Deaf parents• First language is American Sign Language• May not consider themselves disabled, but as part of the cultural and linguistic minority Deaf community
Identifying the Deaf (3)Deafened People• Those who have suddenly lost sense of hearing and acquisition of spoken language as the result of illness or injury.• Continue to identify with the hearing community• Use their original spoken language.
Identifying the Deaf (4)Hard of hearing people• Many are over 60 years old.• Have usually grown up speaking and reading their first language and are still able to do so; they retain some residual hearing and are likely to use hearing aids..
Identifying the Deaf (5)Deaf-blind/dual sensory impaired• Have a significant degree of both sight and hearing loss.
Laws Related to Library Users Who are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing• Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990: discrimination based on disability became illegal in employment, public transportation, public programs, telecommunications, and public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, shopping centers and offices.• Implications for the Deaf?
Laws Related to Library Users Who are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (2)• Television Decoder Circuitry Act in 1993• Rehabilitation Act, with key sections 504 and 508• Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010
Implications for LibrariansThe social model approach to deafness enablesservice providers to respect deaf service usersas equals and to remove barriers in a way thatdoes not set deaf people apart as a ‘specialneeds’ group.The social model asks simply:Who are you?What do you need?(Playforth 2004)
“Interact with each person as an individual.”Ann Ito (Director of Kokua Program, UH Manoa, 2011)
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingHawaii State Public Libraries • e-reference • Job Access with Speech (JAWS) software • Closed captioned DVDs, videos. • TTY/TDD • Microphone system when necessary • Sign Language Interpeters • Partner with Better Hearing HawaiiLibrary for the Blind and Physically Handicapped • a collection of American Sign Language books and videos
TTY/TTD• Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf (TDD), also known as TTY (text telephone), is a small device like a typewriter that allows a hearing-impaired person to send text over a telephone line.
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingUniversity of Hawaii, Manoa Library• TTY/TDD• Sprint Relay Service• Close-captioned videos and DVDs• Audio-Visual Lab with headphones and adjustable volume• E-reference, email, 24/7 chat service• Workstation with software, amplification (headphones)
UH Library Website
“Guide to assist in providing educational services to differently abled peoples” http://guides.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/accessibility
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingKokua Program at UH ManoaPriority RegistrationTranscription ServicesNote-taking ServicesSign language Interpreters (live or remote)Faculty Technical AssistanceAudio-Visual CaptioningTesting AccommodationsAssistive Technology (TTY, Web Cams)Education and Advocacy
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (2)People who are: May also benefit from these accomodations:D/deaf or hard-of -Qualified sign language interpreters for publichearing programming -A staff person knowledgeable in sign language -Closed/Opened Captioning -Telephones -Public TTY/TDD -Instant Messaging -Video relay service access -Hearing Ear Dogs
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (3)People who are: (3) benefit from these May accomodations:D/deaf or -Clear signagehard-of hearing -Visual alert / warning system -Equal accessibility to all programs and services -Paper and pencil
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (4)People who are: (4)(4 benefit from these May accomodations: -Assistive Listening Device (ALD)Hard-of hearing -Amplification system -Headsets and "Neckloops” -Hearing aid compatible public telephones
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community• Personnel• Communication• Collections• Services• Program Publicity
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (2)Personnel• Are staff trained on the issues pertaining to servicing the deaf community?• Is training provided on how to communicate effectively?• Employment of persons who can obtain credibility within the deaf community?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (3)Communication• Are Text telephones (TTY) available at each main service point (i.e. the reference desk)?• Do telephones have amplification?• Is the library’s internet presence wholly accessible?• Are current technologies for communication in place?• Are communication aids for supporting computer-assisted real- time captioning available for meetings?• Are closed caption/television decoders available?• Are sign language and oral interpreters, computer-assisted real- time captioning, or computer-assisted note taking services available?• Does the library use visible warning signals?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (4)Collections• Are collections interesting and related to deafness/culture?• Is there a wide, impartial collection of information provided in regards to educational options, referral agencies, and programs for community of deaf?• Is there access to collections of high interest / low reading level materials?• Are television, video programs and other such media with audio portions captioned or signed?• Is there sufficient equipment necessary to view videos?• Is there a collection of videotapes/films in sign language?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (5)Services• Are collections, services, and programs accessible and encouraged for deaf patrons?• Is the library’s deaf community involved in the design and development of the library’s services to deaf people?• Are programs conducted in sign language?• Do library-sponsored literacy programs meet the unique needs of deaf individuals?• Is local deaf-related Information provided in its online community information and referral database?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (6)Program Publicity• Are programs and services to the deaf community being actively publicized?• Does all library publicity provide for access to the library’s deaf community?
New Technologies forLibraries to Consider
Internet Protocol Relaytext based system that enables persons who are deaf touse sign language or speech reading to communicate withany telephone user via a Video Interpreter (VI) at a relayservice call center. The user has a videophone or webcamconnected to a video relay service call center using aninternet connection.
Internet Protocol Relay (IP)
Video Relay Service (VRS)enables a deaf user to use sign language or speech readingto communicate with any telephone user via a VideoInterpreter (VI) at a relay service call center. The user has avideophone or webcam connected to a video relay servicecall center using an internet connection.
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