Complementary Protein CombinationsExamples of complementary protein combinations:Rice and beansPeanut butter on whole wheat bread
Protein Functions• Tissue building: important for athletes trying to put on muscle mass.• Cell functioning – Enzymes• Body functioning – Hormones – Immune function – Fluid balance• Energy source: prefer not to use protein as energy source but if athlete isn’t taking in enough calories then protein will be diverted from other important functions to be used for energy.
What is nitrogen balance?Nitrogen balance is an indicator of nitrogenstatus and thus protein intake.Equals: (Nitrogen in) – (Nitrogen out)
Factors Influencing Protein Requirements• Total energy intake• Desire to lose or gain weight• Carbohydrate availability• Exercise intensity and duration• Training status/fitness level• Dietary protein quality• Age
Questions to Ask About Protein Supplements• What is the quantity of protein or amino acids in the product?• Is the supplement necessary?• What is the cost?• Will it enhance performance?• Does the supplement have any harmful effects?
How much protein should be consumed 4 to 24 hours before competition?• Depends on how much time before exercise is initiated• Lean protein sources – 3 to 6 oz turkey, fish, soy or – 8 to12 fl oz dairy or – Complementing low-fiber plant sources
How much protein should be consumed 1 to 4 hours before competition?• Focus should be on CHO• Small amounts of protein okay (i.e., 2–4 oz lean meat)• Lean protein sources preferable
What about protein consumption during competition?• Protein can serve as an energy source.• Consumption during exercise is questionable.• There is some research support for branched chain amino acids during competition.
What about protein consumption after competition?• 6 to 20 grams of high-quality protein – Casein – Whey – Soy• Essential amino acids are key.• Should be consumed within 3 hours after competition.• Hydrolyzed protein sources are absorbed more quickly.