Child neglect 2

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  • Welcome to Module II of Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: What School Personnel Need to Do regarding what to look for when reporting potential child abuse and neglect. Before proceeding with this module, you may want to consider revisiting the policy requirements summary at the close of Module I. In Module II, we will be reviewing the potential physical, emotional and behavioral indicators that may become a trigger for making a report of a potentially abused or neglected child situation. For the purpose of this module, you will be directed to handouts four through ten which you may want to print out prior to proceeding with this module. You may find these handouts by clicking on the handouts link.
  • What is child abuse and neglect? These definitions of child abuse and neglect are taken from the statute. We will be examining some examples of these in more depth during this module. The exact statutory language of the definitions is contained in Handout # 4 . By “caregiver” the definition includes anyone having “ custody or control ” of a child. Therefore, a caregiver in the school can be a teacher, a chaperone at an event, a coach, an administrator, an intern or a volunteer to name a few examples. The definition applies to children under the age of 18 years. However, since schools can have students beyond age 18, including special education students up to age 21, other procedures will apply for this group of young adults. In the next slide you will see what may apply…
  • As indicated, if an 18 to 21 year old student is still an open case with DYFS, you should still call the Hotline. If you are unsure, you should err on the side of caution and call the Hotline. The screener can quickly determine if DYFS is active with that young adult. DYFS or the “Institutional Abuse Investigation Unit” (also known as IAIU, which we will explore in greater detail in Module # 4), may investigate, if another child ( under age 18 ) may be at risk of abuse/neglect by the alleged perpetrator.  This principle also applies if a person, now 18+, claims he or she was abused as a child, under age 18. Example: if an 18 year old claims he/she was abused by a teacher and that teacher is still employed at school (and obviously has access to other students), IAIU will investigate to ensure there are no other potential child abuse victims by the teacher.
  • Schools will need to determine if other divisions or agencies have been or are currently involved with the student. For those 18 to 21 year young adults who are receiving special education services, it will be less difficult to identify whether the student is receiving case management from another agency, depending on the nature of the classification. Those agencies should be contacted to determine whether they could provide intervention services and/or support for the student. In many instances, Adult Protective Services may need to be notified. Adult Protective Services is located under the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services. This telephone number is also listed on page 4 of Handout # 5 , which contains listings of many other resources.
  • With child abuse and neglect…there are four major categories that we will be examining… Physical abuse… Sexual abuse… Neglect… and Emotional abuse. However, as we proceed through this training, you will learn that school staff are required to be reporters of suspected abuse, NOT investigators. We’ll start first with physical abuse : Physical abuse can be defined as any unexplained or questionable bruises, welts, burns, lacerations, fractures, or abrasions. Sexual abuse is often signified by complaints regarding genital/anal areas, sexually transmitted diseases, unusual knowledge about or preoccupation with sex. Neglect , one of the more difficult forms of abuse to identify, can be associated with concerns related to consistent hunger, poor hygiene, inappropriate dress, lack of supervision, or willfully failing to provide an education. As with neglect, emotional abuse is also a difficult form of abuse to identify and can often show up in children through aggressive or withdrawn behavior, unusual fears, running away, sudden change in mood or behavior.
  • Here are some additional indicators that you may experience or observe to lead you to believe that there is a potential abuse or neglect situation. A student may directly report that he/she has been abused. Do not discount the possibility that a child may directly report to a teacher or other person in the school that he or she has been abused or harmed in some way. Children do self-report. A staff person may directly observe a sign or act of abuse. And finally, the student may have frequent or questionable absenteeism . Now we will proceed to examine the major areas of potential abuse and neglect in more detail.
  • Physical abuse may be the most obvious type of abuse to identify. Here are some observable indicators and behavioral indicators. …{pause}… What factors would indicate that a bruise, welt or other mark might be “unexplained”, “ questionable” or “inconsistent” ”? Please take a few moments to discuss this now and refer to Handout #6 which contains the text of this slide as well as additional information.
  • Here are some additional types of physical abuse… unexplained or questionable or inconsistent burns, ……………..fractures, …………….and lacerations…. This information is also included in Handout #6.
  • You or a member of the audience should read the first scenario. Your group should then discuss whether this is an abuse situation and why- or why it may not be one. After you have finished the first scenario, you should do the same for the second. After your discussions, move to the next slide to hear the response from a DYFS investigator.
  • In the first scenario, Johnny was not injured. Since his and his father’s version of the events are the same, and since Johnny does not seem fearful of his father, it is likely that this was an isolated incident of a punishment by the parent. In the second scenario, This explanation is highly suspect. Studies have shown that most children who fall down stairs do not sustain multiple or serious injuries. Also, Susan’s injuries are on the soft - rather than the bony parts of her body. And, she has sustained similar “tomboy accidents” in the past. A situation such as this should be reported as suspected abuse.
  • Physical neglect of a child includes any of these observable indicators and these behavioral indicators of neglect. What would some of the social/emotional indicators be? In the classroom, what problems might you observe? Please take a few moments to discuss this now and refer to Handout #7 which contains the text of this slide as well as additional information.
  • “ A child’s parents cannot afford to get her needed prescription glasses.” Your group should discuss whether this is a neglect situation and why- or why it may not be one. After you have finished discussing the first scenario, you should do the same for the second. After your discussions, move to the next slide to hear the response from a DYFS investigator.
  • In the first scenario, If a parent is financially unable to provide something for a child, technically it is not neglect, even if it is an item that is badly needed by a child. In this case, some type of financial assistance or a linkage to a program or charity that provides eyeglasses for children should be attainable. The school district may refer to NJ Family Care. Eyeglasses are included in this insurance plan. In the second scenario, Because this is potentially a neglect situation, a call to the Hotline should be made. A determination of neglect may be made depending on a number of factors that the investigator will be examining, including the emotional maturity and cognitive development of the child, the frequency with which this occurs, the length of time, whether the child knows how to contact other adults and so on.
  • Sexual abuse of a child may include any of these observable indicators and behavioral indicators. What would some of the social/emotional indicators be? In the classroom, what problems might you observe? Please take a few moments to discuss this now and refer to Handout #8 which contains the text of this slide as well as additional information.
  • You or a member of the audience should read the first scenario. Your group should then discuss whether this is a sexual abuse situation and why- or why it may not be one. After you have finished the first scenario, you should do the same for the second. After your discussions, move to the next slide to hear the response from a DYFS investigator.
  • In the first scenario, This warrants a call to the Hotline. Based on your observations, the relationship appears to be more than a professional one. Your further observation of the coincidental absences also causes you to have a reasonable belief that child abuse may be occurring. In the second scenario, While there is a chance that Adam is lying, you cannot make that determination. You should always take a child’s disclosure seriously, and err on the side of protecting the child. Therefore, make the call to the hotline.
  • In the DYFS protocols and procedures, there are certain criteria and standards that are followed when attempting to substantiate emotional abuse. These points are part of that criteria. This information is found in Handout # 9 . We will emphasize again, that for these factors and for the previous ones for physical, sexual abuse, and neglect- it is the investigator who makes the determination whether there is, or is not a potential child abuse and neglect situation. School staff are only obligated to be observant and to report when there is reasonable suspicion of abuse or neglect.
  • Emotional abuse can certainly rise to the level of abuse and neglect. These behaviors, if observed, can be cause for concern, especially if there is a sudden change in a child’s behavior, affect or habits. Please keep in mind that some children may exhibit such emotional disturbances and/or maladaptive behaviors, but the cause is not attributable to emotional abuse. Other factors such as organic disorders, or other mental health and psychiatric disorders, may mirror symptoms of emotional abuse. There would be a need then, for school staff to have as much information as permissible, to determine if these behaviors are cause for suspicion of child abuse or neglect. Handout # 10 explains the DYFS protocol for determining emotional abuse.
  • You or a member of the audience should read the first scenario. Your group should then discuss whether this is an emotional abuse situation and why- or why it may not be one. After you have finished the first scenario, you should do the same for the second. After your discussions, move to the next slide to hear the response from a DYFS investigator.
  • In the first scenario, Remember, emotional abuse depends not only on the caregivers actions but also on the child’s reactions and vulnerability. Dave is mature and comfortable enough to argue with his father and joke with his friends. This is an example of an incident of poor parenting, not of emotional abuse. In the second scenario, Lucy’s mother’s attitude toward Lucy is harsh and unsupportive. Her behavior toward Lucy (as overheard by you) is further indicative of her lack of understanding of the needs of her shy and sensitive 7-year-old child. Lucy’s acting out behavior is one indicator of her inability to appropriately interact with other children. Even given what little is known, this is cause for reasonable suspicion of emotional abuse by the parent and a call to the Hotline should be made.
  • Pursuant to DYFS guidelines, educational neglect means that the parent or caregiver has willfully failed to provide a school-age child (ages 6 to 16) with a regular education, as prescribed by applicable State law. A symptom of this form of neglect is that a school-age child is enrolled in a school program but is failing to attend on a regular, ongoing basis. Unlike the other forms of abuse/neglect, a district must first apply all of its procedures before making a report of educational neglect. Consideration should be given to the requirements for investigating excessive absenteeism or truancy and whether the child is being home-schooled or sent to a private school. Remember that N.J.S.A. 18A:38-25 requires the attendance of children between six and 16, and states:    “Every parent, guardian or other person having custody and control of a child  between the ages of six and 16 years shall cause such child regularly to attend the public schools of the district or a day school in which there is given  instruction equivalent to that provided in the public schools for children of similar grades and attainments or to receive equivalent instruction elsewhere than at school. “
  • This concludes the second module of the Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect training. You are welcome to review any portion of this module as a refresher or for additional information before proceeding to the next module, Module 3 regarding how to report suspected abuse and neglect.
  • “ Child Abuse doesn’t report itself. Make the call, help a child.” … “Do what is right.” Click here to access the Module II Post-Test.

Transcript

  • 1. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect What School Personnel Need To Do Module II What to look for… http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 2. What is Child Abuse and Neglect?
    • A child who is under the age of 18 is considered to be abused or neglected when a parent or caregiver :
      • Inflicts or allows to be inflicted physical injury by other than accidental means that creates substantial harm or risk of substantial harm.
      • Fails to provide proper supervision or adequate food, clothing, shelter, education or medical care although financially able or assisted to do so.
      • Commits or allows to be committed an act of sexual abuse against a child.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 3. “ What about 18 to 21 year-old students?”
    • If an 18 to 21 year old student is an “open case” with DYFS, the Division will assess the needs of the 18 to 21-year-old and provide appropriate services.
    • If DYFS has the 18 to 21 year old student as an open case, they legally cannot open an investigation as statutes prohibit this. However, their involvement may lead to referring to other available support services or having law enforcement apply certain legal charges.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 4. Students age 18 to 21 years:
    • If current or past DYFS or other agency involvement is unknown, you should still make the call to the Hotline.
    • If it is known that there is case management from another Division…call that case manager or contact person.
      • The Division of Developmental Disabilities (Dept of Human Services)
      • The Division of Mental Health Services (Dept of Human Services)
      • The Division of Child Behavioral Health Services (DCF)
    • Probation may be contacted if they are involved.
    • If there is no current DYFS or other agency involvement, the person making the report should call the Adult Protective Services office 1-800-792-8820. There is an office in each of the 21 counties.
    • In every instance, call law enforcement.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 5. What are the common signs of abuse?
    • Physical abuse: unexplained or questionable bruises, welts, burns, lacerations, fractures, abrasions, etc.
    • Sexual abuse: complaints regarding genital/anal areas, sexually transmitted diseases, unusual knowledge about or preoccupation with sex.
    • Neglect: consistent hunger, poor hygiene, inappropriate dress, lack of supervision, or willfully failing to provide an education.
    • Emotional abuse: may include aggressive or withdrawn behavior, unusual fears, running away, sudden change in mood or behavior.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 6. Additional Indicators:
    • A student may directly report that he/she has been abused!
    • Staff may directly observe a sign or act of abuse or neglect.
    • Frequent or questionable absenteeism of a student is a cause for potential concern.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 7. Physical Abuse
    • Observable Indicators
    • Unexplained or questionable/inconsistent bruises and welts:
    • On face, lips, mouth
    • On torso, back, buttocks, thighs
    • In various stages of healing
    • Clustered, forming regular patterns
    • Reflecting shape of article used to inflict (electric cord, belt buckle)
    • On several different surface areas
    • Regularly appear after absence, weekend or vacation
    • Behavioral Indicators:
    • Wary of adult contacts
    • Appearing uncomfortable with physical contact
    • Complaining of soreness or moving uncomfortably
    • Apprehensive when other children cry
    • Behavioral extremes:
    • Aggressiveness or Withdrawal
    • Reluctant to change clothes for PE
    • Frightened of parents
    • Afraid to go home
    • Seeking to stay late after school
    • Reports injury by parents
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 8. Physical Abuse (continued)
    • Observable Indicators
    • Unexplained or questionable/inconsistent Burns:
    • Cigar, cigarette burns, especially on soles, palms, back or buttocks
    • Immersion burns (sock-like, glove-like doughnut shaped on buttocks or genitalia)
    • Patterned like electric burner, iron, etc.
    • Rope burns on arms, legs, neck or torso
    • Observable Indicators
    • Unexplained or questionable/inconsistent fractures:
    • To skull, nose, facial structure
    • In various stages of healing
    • Multiple or spiral fractures
    • Unexplained or questionable/inconsistent laceration or abrasions:
    • To mouth, lips, gums, eyes
    • To external genitalia
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 9. Scenarios to Think About:
    • You overhear your student Johnny, a 12 year-old, telling some other children about how he was caught shoplifting over the weekend and his father gave him a beating with his belt for it. You take Johnny aside and tell him what you overheard. You ask if the nurse can examine him, and he agrees. The nurse finds no bruises or marks on Johnny. You call Johnny’s father and he confirms that he did indeed hit Johnny with a belt, as punishment for shoplifting. Johnny’s father picks him up from school as usual, and Johnny seems happy to see his father.
    • Susan, a six-year-old girl, has a bruise on her cheek, her upper arm, and her torso. She tells you that over the weekend she fell down the stairs. Susan often has bruises on her upper arms. Her mother confirms that she fell down the stairs—she says Susan is a tomboy and is always falling down.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 10. Scenarios for discussion:
    • You overhear your student Johnny, a 12 year-old, telling some other children about how he was caught shoplifting over the weekend and his father gave him a beating with his belt for it. You take Johnny aside and tell him what you overheard. You ask if the nurse can examine him, and he agrees. The nurse finds no bruises or marks on Johnny. You call Johnny’s father and he confirms that he did indeed hit Johnny with a belt, as punishment for shoplifting. Johnny’s father picks him up from school as usual, and Johnny seems happy to see his father.
    • Susan, a six-year-old girl, has a bruise on her cheek, her upper arm, and her torso. She tells you that over the weekend she fell down the stairs. Susan often has bruises on her upper arms. Her mother confirms that she fell down the stairs—she says Susan is a tomboy and is always falling down.
  • 11. Physical Neglect: May often involve a COMBINATION of factors…
    • Observable Indicators:
    • Consistent hunger, poor hygiene, inappropriate dress
    • Consistent lack of supervision, especially in dangerous activities or long periods
    • Frequent fatigue or listlessness
    • Unattended physical problems or medical needs
    • Abandonment
    • Behavioral Indicators:
    • Begging, stealing food
    • Extended stays at school (arrive early & depart late)
    • Falling asleep in class
    • Noticeably poor hygiene
    • Shunned by peers
    • Clinging behavior
    • Alcohol or drug abuse
    • Delinquency (e.g. thefts)
    • States there is no caregiver
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 12. Scenarios to Think About:
    • A child's parents cannot afford to get her needed prescription glasses.
    • 11-year-old Melissa is home alone every day after school until her mother comes home from work.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 13. Scenarios for discussion:
    • A child's parents cannot afford to get her needed prescription glasses.
    • 11-year-old Melissa is home alone every day after school until her mother comes home from work.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 14. Sexual Abuse:
    • Often, there are no physical signs, however some observable indicators include:
    • Difficulty in walking or sitting
    • Torn, stained or bloody underclothing
    • Pain or itching in genital area
    • Bruises or bleeding in external genitalia, vaginal or anal areas
    • Venereal disease, especially in pre-teens
    • Pregnancy
    • Inappropriate “child on child” sexual activity/touching (going beyond age-appropriate curiosity)
    • Behavioral indicators can be subtle or attributable to other factors but may include:
    • Unwilling to change for gym or participate in PE
    • Withdrawn, fantasy or infantile behavior
    • Sexually explicit drawings
    • Bizarre, sophisticated or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge
    • Highly sexualized play
    • Unexplained fear of a person or place
    • Poor peer relationships
    • Delinquency or runaway behavior
    • Reports sexual assault by caregiver
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 15. Scenarios to Think About:
    • You see one of your colleagues at a restaurant with a 14-year old student of yours. The next day, you inadvertently walk into a dark classroom and turn on the lights where you find said colleague and student appearing disheveled and adjusting their clothing. You notice a few days later that the student is absent from your class on the same day that the colleague was scheduled to cover for you to attend a meeting. Your teacher colleague is absent on that day.
    • You have known 13 year old Adam and his parents for years. Adam has presented behavioral problems in school and has been known to lie. His father is well known and active in the community, with a good reputation. One day, Adam comes to you in tears and tells you his father has been making him pose for photographs in the nude. You think he is probably lying.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 16. Scenarios for discussion:
    • You see one of your colleagues at a restaurant with a 14-year old student of yours. The next day, you inadvertently walk into a dark classroom and turn on the lights where you find said colleague and student appearing disheveled and adjusting their clothing. You notice a few days later that the student is absent from your class on the same day that the colleague was scheduled to cover for you to attend a meeting. Your teacher colleague is absent on that day.
    • You have known 13 year old Adam and his parents for years. Adam has presented behavioral problems in school and has been known to lie. His father is well known and active in the community, with a good reputation. One day, Adam comes to you in tears and tells you his father has been making him pose for photographs in the nude. You think he is probably lying.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 17. Emotional Abuse: The criteria used by DYFS…
    • Emotional abuse and/or neglect is conduct by a child’s parent or caregiver toward the child which contributes to, causes, allows or permits:
      • Significant and/or persistent emotional pain, harm or impairment; and/or
      • Significant vulnerability to or risk of such pain, harm or impairment; and/or
      • Significant exacerbation of a child’s existing emotional pain or impairment.
    • There must be injury to the intellectual, emotional or psychological development of a child as evidenced by observable and substantial impairment in the child's ability to function within a normal range of performance and behavior.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 18. Emotional Abuse… Is often difficult to prove. Conduct by a parent or caregiver may include acts, omissions or patterns of acts/omissions. These may be immediately harmful or cumulatively harmful.
    • Some observable indicators in children,
    • (with a suggestion to be aware of sudden changes in behavior):
    • Suicidal threats or gestures
    • Running away episodes
    • Behavior extremes: aggressive, demanding, fearful
    • Significant sadness, self-denial, depression, low self-esteem, withdrawal
    • Inability to form trusting relationships
    • Habit disorders (sucking, biting, rocking, etc.)
    • Phobias, obsessions, compulsions,
    • Conduct disorders (antisocial, defiant, destructive, sociopathic, etc.)
    • Neurotic traits (sleep disorders, speech disorders, inhibition of play)
    • Inappropriately adult or infant-like
    • Compliant/passive/regression
    • However, these may be attributable to organic disorders, other mental health/psychiatric disorders.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 19. Scenarios to Think About:
    • Dave is a sophomore in high school, a good student, and a starter on the basketball team. You go to a game and observe Dave’s father criticizing and ridiculing Dave from the sidelines. He is so disruptive that, during half-time, Dave and he get into a heated argument on the sidelines. Dave fouls out during the third quarter, and his father leaves in obvious disgust. Dave seems relieved when his father leaves, and you see him joking with his teammates.
    • Lucy is a very shy, sensitive 7-year-old who has trouble getting along with the other children in your class. You ask her mother to come in to talk to you about it. Her mother claims that Lucy is a “prima-donna” and “stuck-up,” and it’s no wonder the other children don’t like her. You overhear her mother ridiculing her in the parking lot, telling her she is worthless and stupid. During the next week, a new girl comes to your class and Lucy begins to taunt her and pinch her at every opportunity.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 20. Scenarios for discussion:
    • Dave is a sophomore in high school, a good student, and a starter on the basketball team. You go to a game and observe Dave’s father criticizing and ridiculing Dave from the sidelines. He is so disruptive that, during half-time, Dave and he get into a heated argument on the sidelines. Dave fouls out during the third quarter, and his father leaves in obvious disgust. Dave seems relieved when his father leaves, and you see him joking with his teammates.
    • Lucy is a very shy, sensitive 7-year-old who has trouble getting along with the other children in your class. You ask her mother to come in to talk to you about it. Her mother claims that Lucy is a “prima-donna” and “stuck-up,” and it’s no wonder the other children don’t like her. You overhear her mother ridiculing her in the parking lot, telling her she is worthless and stupid. During the next week, a new girl comes to your class and Lucy begins to taunt her and pinch her at every opportunity.
  • 21. “ Educational Neglect” (Per guidelines from the Division of Youth and Family Services)
    • "Educational neglect" means –
    • The parent or caregiver has willfully failed to provide a school-age child (ages 6 to 16) with a regular education, as prescribed by applicable State law.
    • A school-age child is enrolled in a school program but is failing to attend on a regular, ongoing basis.
    • NOTE: The local school system or board of education must exhaust all its remedies, under State education law, administrative code, and local policies and procedures to engage the parent or caregiver and compel the child to attend school, before making a report of "educational neglect" to DYFS.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 22. Summary of Module II
    • Physical abuse: unexplained or questionable bruises, welts, burns, lacerations, fractures, abrasions, etc.
    • Sexual abuse: complaints regarding genital/anal areas, sexually transmitted diseases, unusual knowledge about or preoccupation with sex.
    • Neglect: consistent hunger, poor hygiene, inappropriate dress, lack of supervision, or willfully failing to provide an education.
    • Emotional abuse: child suffers significant and/or persistent emotional pain, harm or impairment; and/or significant vulnerability to or risk of such pain, harm or impairment; and/or significant exacerbation of a child’s existing emotional pain or impairment.
    • Educational neglect means –The parent or caregiver has willfully failed to provide a school-age child (ages 6 to 16) with a regular education, as prescribed by applicable State law. A school-age child is enrolled in a school program but is failing to attend on a regular, ongoing basis.
    • DYFS may investigate some cases of suspected abuse and neglect for 18 to 21 year olds, under certain circumstances. Other agencies and/or law enforcement may also have a role for this age group.
    http://www.state.nj.us/education/students/safety/socservices/abuse/training/
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Now That you have completed Module II, you may close out the power point and continue on to take the Quiz for Module II.