The Byzantine Empire-The Eastern half of the Roman EmpireAs the Roman Empire continued to grow in size, itbecame increasingly more difficult to control. In284 AD Emperor Diocletian (284-305) came to thethrone after a century of disorganization, internaldissent, economic collapse, and foreign invasions. Itwasn’t long after he took control that in 285 AD hedecided that the Empire was too large to beadministered by a single ruler, so he divided it intotwo halves. The Empires would be ruled by Co-Emperors and the western half would be centered inRome, while the eastern half would be ruled fromthe city of Byzantium.
The dividing line was chosen because most territories to the west of theline spoke Latin and followed traditional Roman culture, while theterritories to the east spoke Greek and maintained less traditionalRoman ways.
The location of Byzantium on the water between theMediterranean Sea and the Black Sea made it apowerful trading force in the east.
When the western area was overrun by German tribes, the Empire was officially divided in 395 AD and as a result, power shifted to the east and the Byzantine side remained strong for a few hundred years more. The empire benefited from the high level of civilization in the former Hellenistic world and from the region’s prosperous trade. In the 4th c. Emperor Constantine renamed the city of Byzantium to Constantinople•Constantinople –Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople –Capital of the Byzantine Empire• Constantinople- “The Second Rome”• Key trading route linking Europe, Africa and Asia – Buffer between Western Europe and Asia ·Constantinople
The Age of Justinian 527-565• In 527, the Byzantine emperor Justinian aimed at regaining control of Italy and restoring the old Roman Empire once again. Through war and conquest by about 550 AD, Justinian once again ruled over almost all of the territory of the old Roman Empire.
The Empress TheodoraTheodora was the They ruledwife of Justinian I unofficially as jointwho was crowned monarchs withEmperor of the Justinian allowingByzantine Empire in Theodora to share527 AD. As his wife, his throne and takeshe ruled by his side, active part inas his partner, and decision making.her intelligencehelped to advancethe Empire.
The Empress TheodoraPerhaps the most significant event during EmpressTheodoras rule was the Nika revolt in which she provedherself a worthy and able leader. During this event, tworival political groups started a riot at the Hippodrome.They set many public buildings on fire and proclaimed anew emperor. Justinian and his officials, unable tocontrol the crowd prepared to flee, but Theodora spokeup and gave a moving speech about the greatersignificance of the life of someone who died as a ruler,over that of someone who lived but was nothing. Herdetermined speech convinced Justinian and his officialsand they attacked the Hippodrome, killing over 30,000rebels and emerging victorious. Historians agree that itwas Theodoras courage and determination that savedJustinians empire
The Empress TheodoraThroughout the rest of her life, Theodora andJustinian transformed the city of Constantinople,building it into a city that for many centuries wasknown as one of the most wonderful cities in theworld. They built aqueducts, bridges, and more than25 churches, the most significant of these being theHagia Sophia - Church of Holy Wisdom. To women,Theodora may well be considered a noble pioneer ofthe womens liberation movement. She passed on lawsprohibiting forced prostitution and established homesfor prostitutes, passed rights that granted womenmore rights in divorce cases, instituted the deathpenalty for rape and established laws allowing womento own and inherit property.
Justinian’s Achievements•Hagia Sophia – Greatdomed churchconstructed duringthe reign of Justinian •The Hippodrome- stadium used for horse and chariot racing •Justinian’s Code – Justinian’s codification of Roman law; made Roman law a the basis for political and economic life
Orthodox Christianity in the EastAlthough it was based on the Roman Empire, theByzantine Empire had developed a culture of itsown. There were many differences between thewest and the east.The feeling of separateness from Rome grewworse when one Byzantine emperor banned the useof icons. Icons are religious images, statues andsymbols used in worship. The pope (in the west)supported the use of icons and even ordered theexcommunication of the Byzantine emperor. Thatmeans that the pope said the emperor could nolonger be a member of the Church.
Orthodox Christianity in the EastSlowly, the Eastern and Roman churches grew apart. In1054, the schism, or split became permanent. In the eastreligion was called Orthodox Christianity or ByzantineChristianity.
RomanCatholicChurches Orthodox Churches •The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054. Even the architecture of their churches are different.
Importance of the Byzantine Empire • Preserved classic works of ancient Greece & Western Rome (learning) including Christianity • Created Orthodox Christian religion • Justinian’s code of laws
Byzantine culture spreads to• Trade between the Russia Byzantine Empire and the city of Kiev helped spread Byzantine culture into Asia. Russia• Vladimir I – ruler of Kiev (980-1015) converted kingdom to orthodox Christianity• Russians started to adapt religious art, •Kiev –trade city that became the music and center for a kingdom that flourished architecture until the 12th c.
Russia’s Geography• Located between China and Europe.• 3 regions helped shape early Russian life – North (very cold winters) -Lumber and hunting – South-Fertile land for farming – Steppe-treeless grassland Open to nomads from Asia and Europe
Steppe Areas • Great “Highway” • Rivers linked Byzantine to Russia
Mongol Influences• As Kiev grew in wealth and power it became a target of a Nomadic people from central Asia, the Mongols. (United by Genghis Khan)• They Looted and burned Kiev• Russian princes had to pay tribute (money) to rule without Mongol interference• Mongol rule of Russia lasted 200 years and cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science
Moscow Replaces Kiev• With the destruction of Kiev, the city of Moscow began its rise in Russia• Under the rule of Ivan the III (the Great), Russia defeated the Mongols (circa 1480)
Ivan the Great ---- Ivan III • Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders • Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar)
•Russian Orthodox – •Cyrillic alphabetRussian form of Christianitybrought from the ByzantineEmpire
Ivan the Terrible --- Ivan IV• Grandson of the Great• Violent, killed own son• Introduced Russia to extreme absolute power
The Byzantine End•The long declinebegan in 11th c.•Muslim Turkishinvaders seizedalmost all of theempire’s Asianterritory, removingthe most importantsources of taxes andfood•In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople•Muslims eventually took Constantinople and renamed itIstanbul. This marked the rise of the Ottoman Empire.