India’s northernborder starts on thesouthern edge of thecontinent of Asia. TheHimalaya is amountain systemwhich blocks off Indiafrom the rest of Asia.This makes India asubcontinent.
Monsoon India’s climate, or usualweather, has monsoons, orstrong winds. The wintermonsoon blows in cold, dry airfrom the mountains. Thesummer monsoon bringswarm, wet air from theArabian Sea. Summermonsoons bring the rainyseason.
Language Family Around 1900 B.C., the people ofthe Indus Valley began to leavetheir cities. Soon, people calledthe Aryans began settling theriver valley. The Aryans came from centralAsia. They were nomads, so theytraveled around to find food fortheir herds of cattle. The Aryanswere not a single race or a tribe.They were a group of peoplewho spoke similar languages.This language family wascalled Indo-European
Sanskrit The early Aryans did not write thingsdown when they were nomads. Whenthey became farmers, they developed awritten language called Sanskrit. UsingSanskrit, they wrote down sales and tradeinformation.
Vedas They also wrote downsongs, stories, poems, and prayers insacred books called the Vedas.
Raja The Aryans lived ingroups, each ruledby a raja, or prince.Rajas often foughtwith each other overtreasure and cattle.
Caste In the Aryan society, social groupsdeveloped. They became the castesystem. A person was born into one casteand could never change to anyother. The caste system had rulesfor almost every part oflife, including marriage, work, andfriendships. The many different castes in Indiansociety were grouped into fourclasses called varnas. Brahmins- who were priests. Kshatriyas, the warriors. They ranthe government and the army. Vaisyas, or “common” people.”They werefarmers, craftspeople, andmerchants. Sudras. They were lower-classworkers and servants who had fewrights. Most Indians were Sudras. One group was too low to be part ofthe caste system— .
Untouchables Untouchables.◦ Untouchables did work considered too dirty forcaste members, such as collecting trash.
Guru Men had many more rights than women.Only men went to school or could becomepriests. When they were young, someboys studied with a guru, or teacher.Older boys went to schools in the cities