Nile River—The Nile is the longest river in the world. It runs north through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 4000 miles. Upper Egypt– southern region of Egypt. It is located upriver in the relation to the Nile’s flow. The Nile’s floods this region in mid-summer. Lower Egypt– the northern region of Egypt. It is located downriver. The Nile floods this region in the fall. (pg. 279)
Pharaoh– the titles used by the rulers of ancient Egypt. Historians believe that Menes (MEE-neez) was the first pharaoh. Dynasty– series of rulers from the same family
Old Kingdom—period in Egyptian history that last for about 500 years from about 2700 to 2200 B.C. The Great Pyramids and the Sphinx were created during this time.
Nobles- -people from rich and powerful families Afterlife– life after death. This belief in the afterlife came from their belief in ka (kah) Ka-- or a person’s life force. The Egyptians believed that when a person died their ka would become a spirit. However, their ka was linked to their body therefore it could not leave the burial site. The ka needs all the same things as a living person therefore the Egyptians would fill tombs with clothing, furniture, tools, jewelry and weapons. Relatives would bring food and drink to the their loved one’s tombs.
Mummification- method of embalming to preserve bodies. Egypt’s royalty and elite were mummified.
• Middle Kingdom-- period in Egyptian history from about 2050 to 1750 B.C. In the period Egypt becomes an international power by reconquering Nubia and expanding trade routes.• New Kingdom-- period in Egyptian history from about 1550 to 1050 B.C. This was also the period that Egypt reached the height of its power and glory.
Hieroglyphics– system of writing that used pictures to represent sounds or words.
Papyrus– long-lasting paper-like material made from reeds; used to write on.
Rosetta Stone– stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics. It was discovered in 1799 by a French soldier. It allowed historians to be able to read the Egyptian hieroglyphics.