Iamse Gme Publishing Panel Final

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  • 1. Strategies and Opportunities in Medical Education for Publishing Scholarly Work Pat Finnerty, PhD, Peter deJong, PhD, Jack Scott * and Julie Hewett Generalist in Medical Education November 2009
  • 2. Strategies and Opportunities in Medical Education to Publish Your Scholarly Work
    • Scholarship
      • Pat Finnerty
    • Venues for disseminating scholarly work
      • Julie Hewett
    • Mechanics of publishing
      • Peter de Jong
    • Group activity and Q/A
  • 3. Learning Objectives
    • Following completion of this session participants will:
    • Identify the characteristics of scholarship and educational research
    • Recognize the value of disseminating educational scholarship
    • Examine and discuss essential elements when preparing a manuscript for publishing
    • Review resources and opportunities for writing and publishing
    • Design individual strategies for writing
  • 4. Traditional Responsibilities of Faculty
    • Teaching
    • Scholarship
    • Service
      • public service
      • college or university service
  • 5. Scholarship in Promotion and Tenure
    • Teaching Portfolios –
    • Documentation of scholarly work and scholarship beyond our CV
    • Mechanism to support and reward direct evidence of educational scholarship
  • 6. Educational Scholarship
    • Characteristics of Scholarship:
      • Public
        • … the work of a scholar is incomplete until it is shared with others .. (Boyer)
      • Critically reviewed by peers
      • Built upon by others
    • Advancing Educators and Education: Defining the Components and Evidence of Educational Scholarship
      • AAMC GEA 2006 Consensus Conference on Educational Scholarship
    Shulman, 1998
  • 7. Educational Scholarship
    • Boyer’s definition of common elements of our published works:
      • Discovery (research)
      • Integration (synthesis)
      • Application
      • Teaching
    Boyer (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate
  • 8. Research
    • Careful, systematic investigation or inquiry; scientific investigation and study to discover facts”
    • Applicable to both medical and educational research projects
  • 9. Medical Science and Educational Research
    • Common Features
    • Theory-based investigations for discovery
    • Evaluate applications to practice
    • Have similar design and data collection strategies
    • Manage sources of error and bias
    • Confront ethical issues and threats to validity
  • 10. Medical Science and Educational Research
    • Differences
    • Design and methodology
    • Subject Selection
    • Interventions
    • Funding
  • 11. Medical Science and Educational Research
    • Medical Research
    • Greater control of variables, including subjects
    • Greater reliance on randomization
    • Educational Research
    • Markedly less control over variables and interventions
    • Subject or individual variations
    • Often less statistical power with smaller sample size; effect size
    • Emphasis on short-term outcomes
  • 12. Educational Research Examples
    • Descriptive case studies
    • Survey and cross-sectional studies
    • Quasi-experimental designs
    • Group differences in knowledge, skills and/or attitudes
    • Evaluation
      • curriculum effectiveness
      • innovation or intervention
      • clinical performance
  • 13. Disseminating Educational Scholarship Julie Hewett IAMSE
  • 14. Opportunities in Educational Research
    • Traditional
      • Conference presentations
      • Peer-reviewed print or online journals
    • Non-traditional
      • Web Audio Seminar
      • Online collections
  • 15.
    • Conference presentations
      • Posters
      • Oral presentation
      • Workshops
      • Panels
    Venues of Publication
  • 16.
    • Biomedical research journals
      • Journal of Biomedical Science, Genomics, Journal of Infectious Diseases
    • Medical journals
      • JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine
    • Educational journals
      • JIAMSE, Medical Education, Medical Teacher, Academic Medicine, Medical Education Online, Teaching and Learning in Medicine
    • General science journals
      • Science
    Venues of Publication
  • 17.
    • PubMed
    • PubMed is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals for biomedical articles back to 1948. PubMed includes links to full text articles and other related resources.
    • Not all journals are indexed by PubMed
    • Only indexed journals are provided with citation indices
  • 18. Medical Education Journals
    • Academic Medicine
    • Advances in Health Sciences Education (Theory and Practice)
    • Anatomical Sciences Education
    • Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (AAMS)
    • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
    • Bioscience Education
    • BMC Medical Education
    • British Educational Research Journal
    • British Medical Journal (BMJ)
    • Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences (CJNS)
    • Clinical Simulation in Nursing
    • Education for Health
    • Education for Primary Care
    • European Journal of Dental Education
    • Focus on Health Professional Education
    • Health Education Research
    • Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
    • Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators (JIAMSE)
    • Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME)
    • Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
    • Medical Education
    • Medical Education Online
    • Medical Teacher
    • Nurse Educator
    • Pathology Education Journal
    • Pharmacy Education: An International Journal for Pharmaceutical Education
    • Studies in Science Education
    • Teaching and Learning in Medicine
    • The Australian Electronic Journal of Nursing Education (AEJNE)
    • The Journal of the American Medical Association
  • 19.
    • Web Audio Seminars
    Venues of Publication
  • 20.
    • Web Audio Seminars
      • IAMSE
        • Defining the path of professionalism in the curriculum
        • Innovative models for student assessment and course evaluation
      • MedEdWorld (AMEE)
        • Evidence based teaching
        • Simulation
    Venues of Publication
  • 21.
    • Online peer reviewed collections
      • HEAL
      • MedEdPortal
      • MedEdCentral
    Venues of Publication
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Mechanics of Writing for Publication Peter G.M. de Jong Leiden University Medical Center IAMSE Vice President
  • 26. Publishing Educational Scholarship
    • Choose what you want to publish
      • An asset like a picture? > online collections
      • A talk about your work? > conference or web seminar
      • A written description of your work > journals
  • 27. Writing a publication…. How to start?
    • Choose the topic you want to write about
      • Use only 1 message
      • Reduce the scope of the article (better write 2!)
      • Use a clear title that reflects that message
        • USE OF PORTFOLIOS IN A FIRST YEAR MEDICAL SCHOOL COURSE
        • LEARNER-DIRECTED CLINICAL CASE TUTORIALS: AN APPROACH THAT FOCUSES ON THE INTEGRATION OF PATIENT-PHYSICIAN INTERACTION AND BASIC SCIENCE INFORMATION TO DIAGNOSE PATIENT COMPLAINTS
  • 28. Writing a publication…. How to start?
    • Choose the topic you want to write about
    • What audience do you want to reach?
      • (Educational) researchers
      • Students
      • Educators
      • General scientists (other fields)
      • General public
  • 29. Writing a publication…. How to start?
    • Choose the topic you want to write about
    • What audience do you want to reach?
    • Select an appropriate journal for this audience
      • Educational journals
      • Biomedical research journals
      • Medical journals
      • General science journals
  • 30. Writing a publication…. How to start?
    • Choose the topic you want to write about
    • What audience do you want to reach?
    • Select an appropriate journal for this audience
    • Choose the type of publication this journal offers
  • 31.
    • Research paper (experiments)
    • Short Communication
    • Commentary
    • Innovation
    • Letter to the Editor
    • Review (of a book, publication or website)
    • Choose the format that fits the message best (not what you like most)
  • 32. *All units: abstract, text (including introduction, materials & methods, results, discussion & conclusion, references and ±tables/figures) JIAMSE CONTENTS CRITERIA COMMENTS Letters to the Editor Short, clear Concise Resource Guide (MERG) Website review 150-300 Words Commentary on Medical Education Editorial, Viewpoint, Essay Critical statement, All units* Innovation Novel ideas 350 Words Single data entry References Monograph Specific subject “ How to. . .” General interest Short Communication Brief observations Not preliminary Longer than INNOVATIONS Text not separated 1200 Words 3 Figures/Tables Full Length Manuscript Complete research topic All units* Opinions & Announcements Medical Education Related IAMSE, government, conferences, international issues Reviews Books, articles, software for medical education Consult the Editor-in-Chief Medical Education Case Study Interactions with students, faculty, curriculum ≈ 2 pages, single space
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Writing a publication…. How to start?
    • Choose the topic you want to write about
    • What audience do you want to reach?
    • Select an appropriate journal for this audience
    • Choose the type of publication this journal offers
    • Find yourself co-writers (or not)
  • 36.
    • Your research colleagues?
    • Your boss?
    • The head of the department?
    • Find people who support the same message!
    • Find people who can and will really contribute
    • Authors from different institutions
  • 37. Submitting
  • 38.
    • Guidelines
    • Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (http://www.icmje.org/)
    • Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research
    • Publishing and Editorial Issues Related to Publication In Biomedical Journals
    • Manuscript Preparation and Submission
    • References
  • 39. Writing a publication…. How to proceed?
    • Make the editor like your submission!!
    • Format the manuscript in the right way
      • Carefully review instructions for authors
      • What is the format for submission?
        • Online / disc; MS Word / PDF
        • Separate submission for graphics/tables
      • Is a stand alone abstract required?
      • Is a fee involved?
      • Disclosure statements necessary?
  • 40. Writing a publication…. How to proceed?
    • Make the editor like your submission!!
    • Format the manuscript in the right way
    • Use correct language and grammar
  • 41. Writing a publication…. How to proceed?
    • Make the editor like your submission!!
    • Format the manuscript in the right way
    • Use correct language and grammar
    • Make references in the right format
  • 42. Reference Issues
    • Which format is being followed?
    • Carefully study examples given
    • Verify that all references are actually cited
    • If the reference is a website, be prepared to provide an archived copy
  • 43. Review Process
  • 44. Writing a publication…. Under review
    • Preliminary review by managing editor
    • Peer review by co-editors
    • Weeks or months
    • (Conditionally) acceptance or rejection
  • 45. Conditionally Accepted with Request for Revision
    • Don't take it personally!
    • Feel free to ask for further explanation if reasons are unclear
    • Be aware of re-submission deadlines and format
  • 46. Good luck with publishing your scholarly work!
  • 47. Project
    • How is scholarship recognized at your school?
    • Identify barriers for writing
    • List strategies/opportunities for writing
    • Describe a project you are considering for publication at this time and how you will move forward
  • 48. Project Debriefing
  • 49.
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. Strategies for Getting Your Education Research Papers Written and Published
    • Dr. Floyd C. Knoop, Associate Editor, JIAMSE
    • Dr. Jack R. Scott, Medical Education Consultant
    • Dr. W. Marshall Anderson; Associate Editor, JIAMSE
    IAMSE Conference 2009
  • 56. Published Education Research
    • Collaborative research networks
    • Co-authorship and lead authorship
    • Intellectual property
    • Plagiarism/professionalism
    • From submission to acceptance/in-press to published scholarly work
    • Impact factors
  • 57. Examples of Data Sources
    • Course evaluations
    • Test scores
    • Educational interventions
    • Questionnaires and interviews/surveys
    • Focus groups
    • Direct observations
  • 58. Research Skills
    • Value discovery of new knowledge and application to education
    • Use information-searching data bases
    • Gain experience in your knowledge domain or pedagogy
    • Be informed about ethical conduct in research
    • Formulate a research question
  • 59. Research Skills
    • Develop valid and reliable measures
    • Address threats to internal and external validity
    • Use appropriate data analysis methods
    • Report complete and accurate findings
    • Role-model evidence-based learning as a teaching tool
  • 60. Quantitative Methods
    • Descriptive
      • Mean, mode, standard deviation, frequency count, percent
    • Compare group means
      • t tests, z scores, ANOVA
    • Contingency tables
      • Chi-Square, 2 X 2 factorial tables
    • Examine relationships between variables
      • Correlation coefficient, regression, multivariate analyses
  • 61. Qualitative Methods
    • Case Study of unique phenomenon
    • Interview, focus group
    • Participant observation
    • Content Analysis of words as data
    • Grounded theory
    • Ethnographic study
  • 62. Scholarship Assessed: Criteria
    • Glassick’s Criteria of scholarship quality:
    • Clear goals - purpose
    • Adequate preparation – preparation, content
    • Appropriate methods – fits goals, effectiveness
    • Effective presentation – peer-review publication
    • Significant results – contribution, impact
    • Reflective critique – insights, quality improvement
  • 63. JIAMSE CONTENTS A Peer-Reviewed Journal
    • LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
    • MEDICAL EDUCATOR’S RESOURCE GUIDE
    • COMMENTARY ON MEDICAL EDUCATION
    • INNOVATIONS
    • MONOGRAPH
    • SHORT COMMUNICATION
    • FULL LENGTH RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT
    • OPINION AND ANNOUNCEMENT
    • REVIEW
    • MEDICAL EDUCATION CASE STUDY
    • See: Information for Authors
  • 64. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 1. Letters to the Editor –
      • short, clear and grammatically correct letter that provides an opinion, comment, criticism or question regarding published articles
  • 65. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 2. Medical Educators Resource Guide (MERG)
      • Journal’s longest running regularly published column
      • Regular journal feature
      • A series of short website reviews by specialists in the medical sciences to assist the medical educator
      • Purpose is to call attention to exceptional websites
    Send to: [email_address]
  • 66. Easy Access to More Than 380 Medical e-Learning Applications. Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
    • http://medischonderwijs.nl or http://medicaleducation.nl
    • A consortium of Dutch Medical Schools has developed a website directory of medical education lessons that are "self-contained interactive learning units with a defined learning goal". The website catalogues “learning units” in both basic medical science and clinical medicine. The “learning units” were developed at several Dutch medical schools and medical institutions worldwide. The site claims a total of 380 “learning units”, including animations, case histories, review questions, and links to external websites. The materials are classified by Academic Department, Institution, and Organ System. There is also a keyword search function. At present, most of the instructional materials are in Dutch or English – a user can specify his or her preferred language. The search engine is quick and efficiently displays a list of the retrieved sites with a capsule summary of the contents, language of instruction, and authoring institution. A "user rating" for some units reflects feedback from users, although in most cases this is based on a rather small sample. Based on information available from the search result, a medical student, resident or faculty member can quickly identify appropriate material for self-study or as a learning resource. Once a user has registered and setup a password, all of the catalogued “learning units” are directly accessible for free without a separate password by clicking on the website link. The site has a brief "user manual"; however, few users will need this, as the site is fairly intuitive. Lastly, the website offers RSS feeds to track “What’s hot” and “What’s new” in medical education.
  • 67. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 3. Commentary on Medical Education
      • opportunity for authors to submit editorials, essays, viewpoints, trends, and critiques in medical education
      • for authors who have non-research-based information
  • 68. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 3. Commentary - include the following: 
      • Title page
      • Abstract
      • Text
        • introduction
        • materials & methods
        • results
        • discussion/conclusions
      • References
      • Tables/Figures/Legends (optional)
  • 69. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 4. Innovations in Medical Education
      • rapid dissemination of novel ideas in medical education, which are not yet fully supported by extensive research
      • published on a regular basis
  • 70. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 4. Innovations in Medical Education
      • Not to exceed 350 total words
      • A single data entry may be included
      • Requires a descriptive title
      • References may be included
      • Author information
      • Peer reviewed
  • 71. Quizzes are for Learning not just Evaluation Jonathan Europi, Ph.D. Department of Microbiology and Immunology School of Medicine University of Kingston Kingston, Belgium Phone: (+)31- 555-882-5365 Fax: (+)31-555-882-7531 Email: jeuropi@kingston.edu
    • In the Medical Microbiology and Immunology course, which I direct, I have included 6 quizzes during the semester with 2 between each Block Test. To make the quizzes a more meaningful educational experience for the students, I have designed them to provide subject discussion as well as evaluation of knowledge. Each quiz consists of two parts- “First take” (FT) and “Second take” (ST). First take is taken individually and has 10 questions for 15 minutes and is worth 10 points. The FT is handed in to the proctors and then the ST is distributed. The Second take consists of another 10 questions on the same subjects as FT but crafted to be more difficult and requiring some discussion for solution. On the ST, groups of students collaborate on knowledge but have no study aids permitted. The groups can be assigned or allowed to form freely. I prefer to have them do it whatever way they choose, and some students have huge groups, while others do it in smaller units. The groups are allowed 35 minutes for ST. The discussion is usually lively and loud. The groups arrive at a group answer for each question, hand individual answer sheets in to the proctor, and ST is worth 5 points. Technically, after discussion most everyone should receive 5 points, but some receive or transmit faulty information and receive less. Such students usually seek out other groups or accept other opinions. The ST provides students with an in depth discussion of the subjects covered by the quiz, cements vital concepts into their mind beyond just answering a multiple choice question and handing it in, and also develops group dynamics which will be useful later. Students accept this method readily and feel it helps them in acquiring and retaining information for subsequent tests.
  • 72. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 5. Medical Education Monographs
      • articles on a specific subject of general interest to medical educators
      • reviews of topics of general interest or “how to” papers
      • published on a regular basis in the Journal
  • 73. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 5. Medical Education Monographs
      • submit a one-page description of a proposed monograph to the Editor-in-Chief of JIAMSE, Dr. Uldis Streips – [email_address]
      • consult the JIAMSE “Information for Authors”
      • http:// iamse.org/jiamse/author_info.htm
  • 74. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 6. Short Communications
      • designed to accommodate brief observations that do not warrant full length papers
      • longer and more data than Innovations
      • not considered as preliminary communications
  • 75. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 6. Short Communications
      • abstract of no more than 50 words
      • the text is NOT separated into section headings, but rather is one continuous description of the research or commentary
      • not to exceed 1200 words and the number of Figures and Tables should not exceed 3
  • 76. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 7. Full Length Manuscripts
    • -Title page
    • -Abstract
    • -Introduction
    • -Materials & Methods
    • -Results
    • -Discussion
    • -Conclusion (optional)
    • -References
  • 77. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 8. Opinions & announcements Medical education related announcements or opinions: IAMSE-related Government activity/Medical education Medical education organizations medical education conference information International issues in medical education
  • 78. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 9. Reviews in Medical Education
    • Reporting on:
    • Books
    • Articles
    • Products
    • Software
    • Papers
    • Websites
    • & Tools relevant to medical education
    • Please consult the Editor-in-Chief: unstre01@louisville.edu
  • 79. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 10. Medical Education Case Study
    • Examples of areas that might be of interest:
      • 1. Course director interaction with students
      • 2. Individual faculty interaction with curriculum
      • office
      • 3. Faculty affairs office issues revolving around
      • teaching and tenure/promotion, faculty
      • development, etc.
      • 4. Use of IT in teaching
      • 5. Student affairs issues
  • 80. JIAMSE CONTENTS
    • 10. Medical Education Case Study
    • Instructions:
      • 1) Write a description of your dilemma or interesting situation (≈ 2
      • pages, single space)
      • 2) Provide a descriptive title (50 spaces or less)
      • 3) Provide your name, title and institutional affiliation
    Send to: Kathryn.mcmahon@ttuhsc.edu
  • 81. Resources
    • Peer-reviewed venue: JIAMSE
    • Print vs. electronic publications
    • Citation formats: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors; APA style
    • Reference tools: EndNote; RefWorks
    • Open Source publishing
  • 82. Common mistakes leading to initial rejection
    • Did not properly follow submission requirements
    • Poorly written (grammar/spelling)
    • Data not adequately supported
    • Improper/Incomplete referencing
    • Insufficient original work
    • Copyright violation
  • 83.
    • If even your colleagues with content knowledge do not understand the article……..
    • Outsiders have less content knowledge and therefore need the structure more