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The Hispanic/ Latino Community of Eastern Nebraska is comprised of individuals whose ancestry can be traced to Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
The term “Hispanic” as it refers to an ethnic group was created on May 4, 1978, when the U.S. Office of Management and Budget published the following regulation in the Federal Register : "Directive 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting" that defined a Hispanic to be "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race" (p. 19269). This definition (refined, with minor adjustments, in 1997) largely focuses on the countries of origin (which may be generations in the past) and assumes that peoples in these countries share a common "Spanish culture" that is also shared by some people living in the United States. Definition of Hispanic
Hispanic- American-Families. Marriage and Family Encyclopedia. Net Industries. 2009. 8 April, 2009. <a href=" http://family.jrank.org/pages/773/Hispanic-American-Families-Hispanics-
Latinos-Group-Definition.html">Hispanic-American Families - The Hispanics/latinos
And Group Definition</a>.
** The terms Hispanic and Latino are NOT interchangeable for many individuals living in this country. Many choose their own terminology based upon their personal feelings to their mestizaje or mixed blood that is not solely European (Spanish or Portuguese) but also their Indigenous background that dates prior to the European conquest.
READING: HISPANICS/ LATINOS (2007-08) SOURCE:NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
READING: MIGRANTS SOURCE:NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
READING: ELLS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MATH: HISPANICS/ LATINOS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MATH: MIGRANTS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MATH: ELLS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SCIENCE: HISPANICS/ LATINOS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SCIENCE: MIGRANTS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SCIENCE: ELLS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WRITING: HISPANICS/ LATINOS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WRITING: MIGRANTS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WRITING: ELLS SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
General Trends & Issues • Demographics – The Hispanic population is the nation's largest minority group – http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=96 – The largest Hispanic subgroup in the United States is of Mexican origin, comprising about two-thirds (66 percent) of the Hispanic population. – By 2020, the Hispanic population is expected to account for about half the growth of the U.S. labor force. • 117 million people will be added to the population during this period due to the effect of new immigration, 67 million will be the immigrants themselves and 50 million will be their U.S.-born children or grandchildren. • Latino population growth in the new century has been more a product of the natural increase (births minus deaths) of the existing population than it has been of new international migration. • http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table%201.pdf
General Trends & Issues • Undocumented Immigrants – There were 11.9 million unauthorized immigrants living in the United States in March 2008, indicates that unauthorized immigrants make up 4% of the U.S. population.
General Trends & Issues • Crime – In 2007, Latinos accounted for 40% of all sentenced federal offenders-more than triple their share (13%) of the total U.S. adult population. Among sentenced immigration offenders, most were convicted of unlawfully entering or remaining in the U.S. Fully 75% of Latino offenders sentenced for immigration crimes in 2007 were convicted of entering the U.S. unlawfully or residing in the country without authorization. • English Speaking Ability – http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table%2019.pdf • Birth Rate – Latino immigrants have birth rates twice as high as those of the rest of the U.S. population, foretelling a sharp increase ahead in the percentage of Latinos who will be in schools and the work place. – Hispanic women have a higher fertility rate than non-Hispanic women: 84 births per 1,000 women in the year preceding the date of the survey, compared with 63 births per 1,000 Non-Hispanic women.
General Trends & Issues • Poverty & Unemployment – Hispanic Families are twice as likely as non-Hispanic Families to live in poverty; 20% of Hispanic individuals are poor compared with 11% of non-Hispanic . – Hispanic individuals comprise about 21 percent of those living in poverty in the United States. As for Hispanic children specifically, 28 percent were living in poverty. – http://pewhispanic.org/files/other/middecade/Table-30.pdf
General Trends & Issues • Hispanic Population in Omaha – People of Hispanic origin make up 7.4% of Greater Omaha’s 2007 population. Approximately 61,223 Hispanic individuals are currently living in the Metro area. – It is projected that by 2012 the Hispanic population in Omaha will increase to 75,615, comprising 8.7% of the population. – Http://pewhispanic.org/states/?stateid=NE
Hispanic children represent a large proportion of school-aged immigrant children. Specifically, Hispanic immigrant children account for more than half (58%) of all immigrant youth in the U.S. (Kohler and Lazarín 2007). There has been significant growth in the number of Spanish-speaking Head Start participants. While in 1993 17.5% of Head Start children were Spanish-speakers, by 2004 the proportion had grown to more than 23% (Kohler and Lazarín 2007). Special Education: Hispanics are about as likely as Whites to receive special education services, but more likely than Asians/Pacific Islanders and less likely than Blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives to do so (NCES 2003). Latino and Black students are more likely to attend schools that serve a large concentration of low-income students. “Among 4 th graders, 49% of Hispanic and 48% of Black students are enrolled in schools with the highest measure of poverty, compared to 5% of White and 16% of Asian/Pacific Islander 4th-grade students” (Kohler and Lazarín 2007). ISSUES AND TRENDS IN EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW
MINORITY ENROLLMENT: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACE/ETHNICITY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS ENROLLED IN GRADES K-12, BY REGION: FALL 1972 AND 2004 1 Includes Asian/Pacific Islanders # Rounds to zero Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Public School Students: Indicator 5,” The Condition of Education 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2006, p. 32.
Hispanic students had higher NAEP reading scores in 1999 than in 1975. However, Hispanic students’ NAEP performance remains lower than White students. (NCES 2003).
Student performance in mathematics
Hispanic students had higher NAEP mathematics scores in 1999 than in the 1970s and early 1980s, and the gaps between Hispanic and White students’ NAEP scores have decreased at two age levels. (NCES 2003).
Student performance in science
Hispanic students had higher NAEP science scores in 1999 than in 1977. Nonetheless, gaps between Hispanic and White students’ NAEP scores remain. (NCES 2003).
Advanced course-taking in high school
Hispanic students are less likely than White students to complete advanced mathematics, some advanced science, and advanced English coursework, but are more likely than White and Black students to complete advanced foreign language classes. (NCES 2003).
Advanced Placement examinations
Between 1984 and 2000, the number of Hispanic students taking Advanced Placement (AP) examinations increased. (NCES 2003).
National Center for Education Statistics. “Status and Trends in Hispanic Education.” U.S. Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences (NCES 2003–008). April, 2003.
AREAS OF CONCERN FOR SCHOOLS Absenteeism: Hispanic 8th- and 12th-graders have higher absenteeism rates than Whites. “School absenteeism can be a concern because it decreases the amount of learning opportunities children have at school. In 2000, 26 percent of Hispanic students in the 8th grade and 34 percent of Hispanic students in the 12th grade reported that they had been absent 3 or more days in the preceding month” (NCES 2003). Grade retention, suspension, and expulsion: Hispanic students have retention and suspension/expulsion rates that are higher than those of Whites, but lower than those of Blacks (NCES 2003). “ In 2004, for example, 11% of Hispanic youth who had dropped out of high school had been retained in a grade at some point in their school career, compared to 4.3% of Hispanic youth who completed high school.” (Kohler and Lazarín 2007). Dropout rates: Hispanic students have higher high school dropout rates than White or Black students. “ The average status dropout rate for Hispanics is partly attributable to the markedly higher dropout rates among Hispanic immigrants; more than one-half of Hispanic immigrants never enrolled in a U.S. school, but are included as high school dropouts if they did not complete high school in their country of origin” (NCES 2003). “ High school dropout rates are particularly high for 16- to 24-year-old foreign-born Latinos. Foreign-born Hispanic dropouts account for 25.3% of all dropouts in the United States” (Kohler and Lazarín 2007).
The Club offers programming in the areas of Character and Leadership, Education and Career Development, Health and Life Skills, The Arts, and Sports, Fitness, and Recreation. Membership is $20 annually; arrangements can be made if there is a financial difficulty.
5051 South 22nd Street Omaha, NE 68107 Phone: (402) 733-8333 Fax: (402) 733-7397 http://www.bgcomaha.org/index.asp
Migrant/ Immigrant Resources
NAF Multicultural Human Development Corp.
English language classes, ABE (Adult Basic Education), job training, migrant education outreach/ recruitment, housing assistance .
4826 South 24th Street Omaha, Nebraska 68107 Phone: (402)734-4100 Fax: (402)734-4103
These are Nebraska Appleseed’s guiding principles, and have been since our non-profit, non-partisan law project started “sowing the seeds of justice” in 1996. Nebraska Appleseed focuses on advancing policies and practices that promote self-sufficiency for Nebraska’s working poor families, promote the integration and participation of immigrant populations in communities across Nebraska, provide safe and adequate child welfare services to children who need protection, increase low-income people’s access to the legal system and support democracy by removing barriers to low-income people’s participation in the electoral and public policy decision-making processes.
AGENCIES & CURRENT PROGRAMS Health Care One World Community Health Centers One World offers medical and dental care services. Charges for services are based on the patient’s ability to pay. 4920 South 30th Street, Suite 103 Omaha, NE 68107 Phone: (402) 734-4110 Fax: (402) 991-5642 http://www.oneworldomaha.org/ Misc. Juan Diego Center The Juan Diego Center offers a food pantry, SHARE food buying program, individual or family counseling, family enrichment programs, micro-business training and development, as well as immigration legal assistance. 5211 S 31st St Omaha, NE 68107 Phone: (402) 731-5413 http://www.ccomaha.org/ Latina Resource Center The Latina Resource Center is a collaborative project of Catholic Charities, the Chicano Awareness Center, Family Service and the YWCA. It serves the Hispanic community, providing resources for Latina women including crisis counseling, parenting classes, domestic violence services, ESL and driver’s education. In September 2005 alone, seventy-one women participated in the programs offered at the LRC. 5211 S 31st St Omaha, NE 68107 Phone: (402) 898-6760 http://www.ccomaha.org/ Office of Latino and Latin American Studies (OLLAS at UNO) (From OLLAS Website) “ Our principal mission has been to open an academic space for the study, understanding, and incorporation of the nation's historically and increasingly important Latino population. The mission and purpose of OLLAS is at the core of UNO's official mission. As such, OLLAS enhances the range of academic programs that the University strives to offer; it expands the educational aspirations and quality of life of all Nebraska and Omaha citizens, including the next generation of Latinos; and it builds understanding and respect through cultural diversity.” Arts and Sciences Hall, Room 106 University of Nebraska at Omaha Omaha, NE 68182 (402) 554-3835 http://www.unomaha.edu/ollas/contactus.php
The American GI Forum- Omaha Chapter has spent more than 50 years working with the community with issues such as fighting against Latino veterans being denied benefits as well as ESL instruction in the 1970s in OPS.
The Latino Center of the Midlands, formerly the Chicano Awareness Center has also advocated in political arenas for the community.
Not to mention…
Ben Salazar, Nuestro Mundo Newspaper
Dr. Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado, Professor, UNO
Dr. Lourdes Gouveia, Professor, UNO
Ana Barrios, Director, Juan Diego Center
Marta Sonia Londoño Mejia, Midlands Latino Community Development Corporation
Rebecca Barrientos Patlan & Virgil Patlan, South Omaha Neighborhood Association.
Virgil & Angie Armendariz, South Omaha Business Association
Maria Vazquez, South Omaha Campus Dean, Metro Community College
Source: A. K. Ramos, former President South Omaha Neighborhood Association (personal communication, March 13, 2009)
Durham Western Heritage Museum: Edward Babe Gomez’ Medal of Honor is displayed.
Student Interview Source: Walter Willman & Antonio Aguirre
SOURCES Kohler, Adriana D. & Melissa Lazarín. “Hispanic Education in the United States.” Statistical Brief No. 8. National Council of La Raza, 2007. National Center for Education Statistics, “Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Public School Students: Indicator 5,” The Condition of Education 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2006. National Center for Education Statistics, “Status and Trends in Hispanic Education.” U.S. Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences (NCES 2003–008). April 2003. Nebraska Department of Education, (2008). State of the Schools Report. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from Nebraska Department of Education Web site: http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Main/Home.aspx Yen, H. (2009). Hispanic enrollment in schools, colleges rising. Associated Press . Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5if7MqOx7roM3NayjcbRNSpqjtKbQD96NM4U00 Pew Hispanic Center: A Pew Research Center Project. "Chronicling Latinos Unique Experiences in a Changing America". (2009). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. http://pewhispanic.org/