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Legislative branch notes

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AP Gove Powerpoint

AP Gove Powerpoint

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  • 1. The Legislative Branch
  • 2. Bicameral A legislative body with two houses established by the Constitution- Article I modeled after the British Parliament
  • 3. Term Length of time between elections in Congress terms begin according to the 20th Amendment in January Terms are numbered consecutively 9, 10, 11,12, 13,… 1st Congress March 4, 1789
  • 4. Session Formal meetings in which members perform legislative work (each term divided into 2 sessions) until WWII 4 month sessions currently full year sessions with short recess
  • 5. Congress ends Jan. 3 2011
  • 6. CONSTITUENTS the people who are represented CONTINUOUS BODY all seats are never up for election at the same time Vocabulary
  • 7. “I have come to the conclusion that one useless man is called a disgrace, that two are called a law firm, and that three or more become a Congress.” 1776, A Musical Play
  • 8. “It can probably be shown by facts & figures that there is no distinctly native American criminal class except Congress.” Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain)
  • 9. If the opposite of pro is con, then the opposite of progress must be Congress.
  • 10. House of Representatives # of seats not fixed apportioned distributed based on population serve 2 year terms without term limitation
  • 11. Reapportion Redistribute –every 10 years Census –435 is “permanent” size •Congress can change size Elections ALL re-elected –even number years House of Representatives
  • 12. Districts –drawn up to elect reps. to House (Census) Gerrymander –to draw districts to give an advantage to a political party House of Representatives
  • 13. *25 years of age *U.S. Citizen for 7 years *Inhabit state represented *can’t be arrested while in session unless commit treason OR felony custom dictates representative must live in district House Qualifications
  • 14. Who are OUR elected officials? House of Representatives (9th District) Bill Shuster (R) (from Everett) • first elected in 2000
  • 15. Senate # of seats fixed by “C” 100 2 from each State 6 year terms Represent entire State NO DISTRICTS
  • 16. Older membership - House Senate ∅ House Prestigious less members; tougher to get elected HIGH media visibility staggered terms 1/3 expire each year Senate
  • 17. Senate Qualifications *30 years of age *U.S. Citizen for 9 years *Inhabit state represented
  • 18. Who are OUR elected officials? Pat Toomey (R) Elected 2010 Bob Casey (D) Elected 2006
  • 19. The Powers of Congress Expressed vs. Implied
  • 20. The Expressed Powers of Congress Powers given by (written in) the Constitution NOT clearly defined; subject to interpretation
  • 21. Peace Powers To collect taxes To borrow money To regulate trade To coin money To establish post offices To grant patents and copyrights To create courts
  • 22. War Powers To declare war To raise and support armies To provide and maintain a navy To make laws governing land and naval forces
  • 23. Implied Powers The Necessary and Proper Clause “To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.”
  • 24. Implied Powers Often called the “Elastic Clause” because it has allowed the Federal Government to stretch its powers.
  • 25. Implied Powers Examples -…collect taxes --- IMPLIES the power to make tax evasion a crime and provide for its punishment -... raise armies and a navy --- IMPLIES the power to draft men into the armed forces -…regulate trade ---IMPLIES the power to fix minimum wages and maximum work hours
  • 26. The Non-legislative Powers Impeachment –House has the sole power to impeach-bring charges against –Senate has the sole power to judge an impeachment case
  • 27. The Non-legislative Powers Constitutional Amendments Electoral Duties – Election of a President by House, if no majority from the electoral college – Each state receives one vote – Election of V-P by Senate, if no majority from the electoral college
  • 28. The Non-legislative Powers Executive Powers –confirmation of major appointments by the President
  • 29. The Non-legislative Powers Investigative Power –Oversee operation of executive branch –Expose questionable activities of public officials
  • 30. Interest group - a private organization that tries to “influence” lawmakers
  • 31. Lobbying - the activities of a person for a pressure or interest group, usually influencing lawmakers
  • 32. The basic job of a lobbyist is to try to get a member of Congress to vote in a beneficial way toward the group the lobbyist represents.
  • 33. Congressional Voting Options Trustee- Members of Congress vote on issues “as they see fit.” They are not influenced by outside groups OR constituents
  • 34. Congressional Voting Options Delegate - Member is an agent of those who elected them. Vote based on what “the folks back home” would want
  • 35. Congressional Voting Options Partisan - Member owes 1st allegiance to their political party. Leading factor in influencing votes.
  • 36. Congressional Voting Options Politico - tries to balance all three
  • 37. Congressional Voting Options Sellout - gives in to the pressure put on by lobbyists, interest groups, & PACs
  • 38. Congress Organizes House of Representatives Speaker of the House –Maintains order in the House –supposed to remain bipartisan in decision-making process –elected by peers - from the majority party
  • 39. Congress Organizes House of Representatives Majority Leader – top ranking official of the party with the most members – assisted by the majority whip Minority Leader – top ranking official of the party with the least members – assisted by the minority whip
  • 40. Senate President of the Senate –Vice President of the United States –maintains order in the Senate –supposed to remain bipartisan in decision-making process
  • 41. Senate President Pro Tempore –performs the duties of the President of the Senate in his absence –elected by his peers - from the majority party
  • 42. Senate Majority Leader – top ranking official of the party with the most members – assisted by the majority whip Minority Leader – top ranking official of the party with the least members – assisted by the minority whip
  • 43. House of Representatives Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi-D CA (John Boehner-R OH Jan 3, 2011) Majority Leader Steny Hoyer-D MD Minority Leader John Boehner-R OH Senate President of the Senate Joe Biden-D (VP) President Pro Tempore Daniel Inouye-D HI Majority Leader Harry Reid-D NV Minority Leader Mitch McConnell-R KY
  • 44. Committees in Congress standing committees - permanent committees – each house has own committees – chairmen chosen by party leaders – majority party holds majority in committee
  • 45. Committees in Congress Joint committees – composed of members of both houses
  • 46. House Standing Committees Agriculture Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs Budget District of Columbia Education and labor Energy and Commerce Foreign Affairs Government Operations House Administration Interior and Insular Affairs Judiciary Merchant marine and Fisheries Post Office and Civil Service Public Works and Transportation Rules Science, Space and Technology Small Business Standards of Official Conduct Veterans’ Affairs Ways and Means
  • 47. Senate Standing Committees Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Judiciary Labor and Human Resources Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans’ Affairs
  • 48. Joint Committees of Congress Economic Committee The Library Printing Taxation
  • 49. How A Bill Becomes a Law After a bill is introduced and passed in one house it must go to the other for the same process. Senate BillHouse Bill 1. Referred to a committee 2. Then to a subcommittee 3. Committee decides future • recommend or decline Floor Action •Debate strict limitations limited time to speak must be about the bill Vetoed bill A bill may be presented in either house 1. Referred to a committee 2. Then to a subcommittee 3. Committee decides future • recommend or decline Floor Action •Debate no limitations filibuster “talk a bill to death” Vetoed bill PRESIDENTIAL ACTION sign into law or veto

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