Differentiated Instruction in Online Environments
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Differentiated Instruction in Online Environments



by Gail Taylor...

by Gail Taylor
This forum will explore differentiated instruction (DI) in online environments. DI is a flexible, holistic approach to teaching and student learning that recognizes all students are not alike in terms of their learning styles and/or types of intelligences, among other related concepts. We will be exploring ways to make assessments of student learning styles and multiple intelligences as a way to identify teaching best practices for diverse groups of students in online environments.



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    Differentiated Instruction in Online Environments Differentiated Instruction in Online Environments Presentation Transcript

    • Differentiated Instruction in Online Learning Environments: Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences Gail Taylor, M.Ed . University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Human Resource Education Ph.D. Candidate [email_address]
    • Introduction to Differentiated Instruction (DI)
      • Teaching philosophy that promotes student diversity in
      • classroom settings
        • Well-suited for adult learners
      • Recognizes individual students enter classrooms with different
      • abilities and motivations
        • Acknowledges student culture that underlies individual abilities and motivations
      • Empowers students within boundaries of organizational
      • structures
        • University, college, department, program, and classroom levels
    • Bounded Learning
      • “ Schools and other institutions, from households
      • to businesses to cultures, value certain ways
      • of thinking more than others.” (pg. 8)
      • “ People whose ways of thinking do not
      • match those valued by institutions
      • are usually penalized.” (pg. 8)
      • Robert Sternberg (2003)
      • Thinking Styles . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    • Student Body before Conditioning– Patchwork Quilt Analogy (Quilt source: www.dorchesterlibrary.org)
    • Student Body after Conditioning – Double Wedding Ring Quilt Analogy (Quilt source: www.rockymountainquilts.com)
    • Educational Psychology Foundations
      • DI integrates what is known about brain development,
      • constructivist learning theory, and learning styles
      • Brain development
        • Brain-based learning and notion of multiple intelligences
      • Constructivist learning
        • Students construct knowledge by completing social relation activities and tasks
      • Learning styles
        • Audio, kinesthetic and tactile, visual
    • DI in Practice
      • Every teacher has adopted DI in one way or another
        • Different types of assignments, more student choices, extending due dates, etc.
      • Possible to make classrooms more responsive to students
      • through intentional and deliberate planning
        • Reasons, objectives, and goals for choosing a particular action clearly stated
      • Realizing DI requires reflection on practice
        • Tracking and monitoring of various materials and procedures on student learning and anticipated outcomes
    • DI Approaches
      • Can differentiate instruction by content, process, and/or
      • product
        • Content – what is taught
        • Processes – how something is taught
        • Products – outcomes of teaching that are assessed to determine student learning
      • Critical elements are choice, creativity, flexibility, and ongoing
      • assessment of teacher and student practices and processes
        • Teacher and/or student initiated assessments
    • 4-Step Process (Source: www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/differentiate/planning/)
      • Know your students
        • Ability levels, interests, behavior management issues
      • Have a repertoire of teaching strategies
        • Cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry-based learning, etc.
      • Identify a variety of instructional activities
        • Read a book, write a paper, do a web search, listen to music, go on a field trip, create a blog or wiki as a class project, etc.
      • Identify different ways to assess student learning and
      • academic progress
        • Formative and summative evaluations
        • Giving students options whether assignments should be graded or completed for credit/no-credit
    • Targeted Instruction
    • Introduction to Learning Styles
      • Audio
        • Hearing
          • Voices and other sounds
      • Kinesthetic and Tactile
        • Doing and touching
          • Creating and manipulating objects
      • Visual
        • Seeing
          • Images and other visual cues
    • Assessing Learning Styles
      • Learning styles can be assessed by administering
      • questionnaires and/or having conversations with students
      • Assortment of questionnaires available on Internet web sites
        • http://www.usd.edu/trio/tut/ts/stylest.html
        • University of South Dakota Trio Program
        • http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm
        • Pennsylvania State University
        • http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/vark.htm
        • University of Hawaii
          • Available in multiple national languages
    • Possibly Think the Same but Also Do Things Differently
    • Broad Categories of Intelligences
      • Object-related
        • Controlled and shaped by objects encountered and interacted with in environments
      • Object-free
        • Auditory systems (e.g., language, music)
      • Person-related
        • Inter- and intra-personal that counterbalance interactions and relationships with others
    • Introduction to Multiple Intelligences
      • Howard Gardner presented the MI theory in 1983
        • Promotes a cross-cultural perspective of human learning
      • Believed there were 7 intelligences at the time theory was
      • formulated
        • List has now been expanded to include 9 intelligences
      • Continuing to evolve as teaching practices shift in response to
      • societal pressures
        • Also related to advancement of knowledge about human learning processes in different settings
    • Gardner Intelligence Types
      • Linguistic
        • Read, write, communicate
      • Logical & Mathematical
        • Patterns, reason, and thinking in a logical manner
      • Visual & Spatial
        • Think in pictures and visualization of outcomes
      • Musical
        • Make and compose music
    • Gardner Intelligence Types (Cont.)
      • Bodily & Kinesthetic
        • Problem-solving using one’s body
      • Interpersonal
        • Good at relating to other people
      • Intrapersonal
        • Good at doing self-analysis
      • Naturalist (new in 1996)
        • Ability to make distinctions in the natural world and the environment
    • Assessing Multiple Intelligences
      • Intelligences can also be assessed by administering
      • questionnaires and/or having conversations with students
      • Assortment of questionnaires available on Internet web sites
        • http://www.accelerated-learning.net/learning_test.html
        • http://jeffcoweb.jeffco.k12.co.us/high/wotc/confli3.htm
        • http://www.literacyproject.org/DL/MultipleIntelligencesSurvey.htm
    • Other Emerging Intelligence Types
      • Successful intelligence – Robert Sternberg
        • Mental abilities to achieve life goals by adapting to, selection of, and shaping environments
      • Moral intelligence – Robert Cole and Ernst Haas
        • Ability to distinguish between right and wrong
    • Planning for the Future
    • Concluding Thoughts
      • Academic institutions are exploring the adoption of various
      • e-learning technologies (e.g., electronic books, simulations,
      • text messaging, podcasting, wikis, blogs)
      • Enhancing personal pedagogical practices is a way for
      • teachers to become proficient at navigating what Curtis Bonk
      • and Kyong-Jee Kim have called the “perfect e-storm”
      • Differentiated instruction is a pedagogical practice that can
      • assist with determining how best to integrate new
      • technologies into classroom settings where there are diverse
      • groups of students
    • Additional Resources
      • http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/menuitem.3adeebc6736780dddeb3ffdb62108a0c/
      • http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html
      • http://differentiatedinstruction.com/
      • http://www.disabilitystudiesforteachers.org/index.php?id=Differentiated%20Instruction
      • http://www.ed.gov/teachers/how/tools/initiative/summerworkshop/walker/index.html