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AERA 1:1 NLE 5.04.10
 

AERA 1:1 NLE 5.04.10

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Research on 1:1 computing and New Learning Ecology

Research on 1:1 computing and New Learning Ecology

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  • We offer a perspective for a new learning ecology that takes into account the unique contributions of a 1:1 setting—a learning-forward environment that takes on organic attributes with evolving interdependence among participants.
  • These four conditions exist within a context that is shaped by policy, technological infrastructure, accountability demands, student abilities, community needs, etcEach NLE is nested within a classroom, school, systems, and even larger contexts. Michael Wesch (2008) defines learning as the ability to create significance and distinguishes between semantic and personal significance. Semantic significance means understanding that “a word, concept or idea is not just meaningful for what it is, but also for how it relates, connects, and contrasts with other words, concepts, and ideas” (2008, video lecture). Personal significance, Wesch claims, connotes that meaningful connections are created in the social interaction with others and through the individual’s process of learning to become a successful, contributing member of a community.
  • Tom Carroll (2007) asserts that “Teaching 2.0” is emerging in response to a 21st century convergence of forces that includes a knowledge-based global workforce, an evolving understanding of how people learn, and a widespread adoption of collaborative teamwork in the workplace. Teaching in the modern era is customized to individual learning needs, where teachers and students co- create meaning and significance out of a wide range of possible learning experiences.thinking.
  • We are positing that the new learning Ecology exists so that we might imagine conditions that support the NLE. Our research considers the extent to which these conditions are present in a 1:1 environment. We are open to other/new conditions may support, extend, constrain, modify the theorized NLE We are making a deliberate effort to consider NLEs in multiple nested contexts including the classroom and school. Research questions from AERA proposalHow does one-to-one computing technology influence the shape of classroom interaction? How does the availability of one-to-one computing in the classroom affect the pedagogical decision-making of the teacher?What is the nature of learning in one-to-one environments? Learning is viewed not simply as obtaining information from an authority figure, but rather “more as a self-directed process with increasingly greater levels of responsibility and commitment” being generated from the learner (Dede, 2009b; P21, 2009). “more as a self-directed process with increasingly greater levels of
  • Preliminary findings suggests that teachers and students engage in a variety of negotiated actions as the search for a way to situate computers in personal teaching or learning contexts. The teachers in this study differed widely in terms of how they viewed the computer from judging the computer as an ancillary tool that supports existing pedagogical strategies to viewing the computer as a transformational device that changes the way that students and teachers interact with information and with each other. With regard to these interactions and the classroom learning context, the presence of laptop computers affected the shape of learning in the classroom.
  • Preliminary findings suggests that teachers and students engage in a variety of negotiated actions as the search for a way to situate computers in personal teaching or learning contexts. The teachers in this study differed widely in terms of how they viewed the computer from judging the computer as an ancillary tool that supports existing pedagogical strategies to viewing the computer as a transformational device that changes the way that students and teachers interact with information and with each other. With regard to these interactions and the classroom learning context, the presence of laptop computers affected the shape of learning in the classroom.
  • Preliminary findings suggests that teachers and students engage in a variety of negotiated actions as the search for a way to situate computers in personal teaching or learning contexts. The teachers in this study differed widely in terms of how they viewed the computer from judging the computer as an ancillary tool that supports existing pedagogical strategies to viewing the computer as a transformational device that changes the way that students and teachers interact with information and with each other. With regard to these interactions and the classroom learning context, the presence of laptop computers affected the shape of learning in the classroom.
  • Preliminary findings suggests that teachers and students engage in a variety of negotiated actions as the search for a way to situate computers in personal teaching or learning contexts. The teachers in this study differed widely in terms of how they viewed the computer from judging the computer as an ancillary tool that supports existing pedagogical strategies to viewing the computer as a transformational device that changes the way that students and teachers interact with information and with each other. With regard to these interactions and the classroom learning context, the presence of laptop computers affected the shape of learning in the classroom.
  • Analyzing and synthesizing research results from over the past decade, the authors set forth four principles of effective professional development (PD). it should: Be intensive, ongoing, and connected to practice;Focus on student learning and address the teaching of specific curriculum content;Align with school improvement priorities and goals; Build strong working relationships among teachers.

AERA 1:1 NLE 5.04.10 AERA 1:1 NLE 5.04.10 Presentation Transcript

  • Toward a New Learning Ecology in 1:1 Learning Environments: Theory into Practice
    John Lee, Karen Hollebrands, Hiller A. Spires, Carl A. Young, & Eric Wiebe
  • Theoretical Grounding for “New Learning Ecology”
    John Seeley Brown (1999) introduced a knowledgeecology by using the definition of “an open system, dynamic and interdependent, diverse, partially self-organizing, and adaptive” (p. 3).
    Barron (2006) defined a learning ecology as the “set of contexts found in physical or virtual spaces that provide opportunities for learning,” which may include formal, informal, and non-formal settings (p. 195).
    Spires, Wiebe, Young, Hollebrands, & Lee (2009) defined a new learning ecology as an emergent concept that is being prompted by 1:1 learning environments.
    Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes (2009) referenced a learning ecology perspective as useful in conceptualizing learning & teaching across Web 2.0 spaces of home, school, work, and community.
  • Research Focus
    Educational 1:1 computing environments and
    the New Learning Ecology
  • Four Conditions for a New Learning Ecology
  • Theoretical underpinnings for each of the NLE conditions
    Immediate and Constant Access to Information and a Global Community
    Evolving national and state policy documents call for the support of globally-connected instruction (P21, 2004), (NC State Board of Education, 2008; Dede, 2009b).
    Students' pervasive digital connectedness and production has been documented nationally (Lenhart, Madden, Macgill, and Smith, 2007) as well as regionally North Carolina (Spires, Lee, Turner, and Johnson, 2008).
    Intensity, Relevance, and Personalization of Learning
    Resulting from a shift to a student-centric approach using dynamic, networked computational tools, tapping into networks of imagination (Senges, Brown and Rheingold, 2008).
    Active pursuit of learning as productive inquiry (Little and Ray, 2005).
    Developing both semantic and personal significance (Wesch, 2008)
  • Theoretical underpinnings for each of the NLE conditions
    Highly-Developed Teacher Capacities
    In addition to content expertise, teachers must have highly-developed capacities for facilitation, improvisation, coaching, and consultation.
    Teaching 2.0 is emerging in response to a 21st century convergence of forces that includes a knowledge-based global workforce, an evolving understanding of how people learn, and a widespread adoption of collaborative teamwork in the workplace (Carroll, 2007).
    Highly-Developed Learner Dispositions
    Defining the learner through dispositions and worldviews rather than just expertise in a content area (e.g., self-direction & self-regulation balanced with curiosity and creativity).
    Recognition of learning as a social practice that evolves around learner interests (Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma,Robinson, and Weigel, 2006)
  • Research Question
    What is the nature of learning in 1:1 environments?
    or
    How are the proposed conditions of the new learning ecology instantiated in 1:1 environments?
  • Method
    Multi-case study of four classrooms in 1:1 environments
    Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Literal replication case approach
  • Participants
    • Four teachers in a rural mid-Atlantic comprehensive high school
    • English/Language Arts
    • Mathematics
    • Science
    • Social Studies
  • Data Sources and Collection
    Observations of class using RTOP (Reform Teaching Observation Protocol)
    Field notes
    Interviews with teachers
    Analysis of teacher work products
    Four teachers
    20 observations
    10 interviews
  • Data Analysis
    Observation notes from one teacher’s class were coded independently by four researchers
    Initial closed coding system was used (NLE conditions)
    Immediate & Constant access
    Intensity, relevance, and personalization of learning
    Highly developed teacher capacities (content expert, coach, consultant, facilitator, and improvisational artist)
    Highly developed learner dispositions (self-directed, self-regulated, curious, and creative)
    Codes were compared and contrasted and refinements to their definitions were made
  • General findings
    New Learning Ecologies are contextualized, variable, complex, and dynamic.
    New Learning Ecology took form in a contextualized manner suggesting plural NLEs
    A continuum of teacher capacities results in variability
    Teachers move in and out of roles which contributes to the dynamic nature of the learning ecology.
  • Findings directly relevant to theorized New Learning Ecology
    Personalization of learning in the classroom
    accommodations, tailoring
    1:1 relationship between teachers and students
    “I can focus on students one-on-one. Particularly some of those back here. Those students that failed the [end of course test]. I could spend more time with them, and the other ones. And they asked more questions, which is good… Being able to walk around the classroom, I can do that much more than I used to be able to. With Sketchpad every kid can work at their own pace…With Sketchpad I can walk around and help every student, which I haven’t been able to do a lot of in the past.”
  • Findings directly relevant to theorized New Learning Ecology
    Teachers as coaches
    motivation, encouragement, modeling
    “I try to guide them through things. Like today, the little girl right here. Her answer to everything is “I don’t know. I don’t know how to start. I don’t know how to do this”…. And I’m giving her examples, pulling her along. This is what you do. This is how you do. I’m a coach and I’m helping and I’ll get on the same play or page.”
  • Findings directly relevant to theorized New Learning Ecology
    Self-regulated learning
    students attending to their learning
    “They all tend to go to [Wikipedia] first. I think it’s the ease of search. I’ve tried to drill it in their heads for the last 12 weeks [to] always read it… if it seems overly critical or overly in favor of something, maybe look somewhere else to confirm. If they’re writing a research paper for me, I told them they could use Wikipedia one time and they had to confirm whatever they found somewhere else than Wikipedia in their paper. And I’ve tried to kind of drill it in their heads they have to kind of confirm it somewhere else, and not take it as God’s truth right there…I think they’ve learned that.”
  • New forms of engagement in 1:1 environments
    1:1 computing is practical, but not transformational
    Findings support Resnick’s (2010) notion of a Thinking Curriculum
    Focused on intellectual goals
    Teachers use emergent “macroscript”
    Systems engineering approach and process assessment
    Findings support Darling-Hammond, et al. (2009) contentions
    PD Must be sensitive to ongoing practice
    Focus on student learning and curriculum content;
    Collaborative and aligned with school goals.
    Conclusions and Directions
  • References
    Anderson, L. W. and David R. Krathwohl, D. R., et al(Eds..) (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing:A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA.
    Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecologies perspective. Human Development, 49, 193-224.
    Brown, J.S. (1999 ). Learning, working, and playing in the digital age. Serendip. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_edu/seelybrown
    Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R.C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., Orphanos, S. (2008). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. National Staff Development Council and The School Redesign Network. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://www.nsdc.org/news/NSDCstudy2009.pdf
    Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Rsnick, L. (2010). Nested learning systems for the thinking curriculum. Educational Researcher 39(3), 183-197.