Demands of the CCSS: Preparing Effective Teachers of English Learners

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What are the skills and expertise teachers need to work with English learners in the era of the Common Core State Standards? Presentation with Diane Staehr-Fenner at the 2013 National Association for …

What are the skills and expertise teachers need to work with English learners in the era of the Common Core State Standards? Presentation with Diane Staehr-Fenner at the 2013 National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) Conference in Orlando, FL.

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  • 1. 1DEMANDS OF THE CCSS:PREPARING EFFECTIVE TEACHERSOF ENGLISH LEARNERSDiane Staehr Fenner, Ph.D.John Segota, CAENational Association of Bilingual EducationOrlando, FLFebruary 7, 2013
  • 2. 2The Issues•  Increasing number of ELs, including US-born ELs and long-term ELs•  All students, including ELs, face new, demanding academic requirements with the CCSS•  Licensure requirements for working with ELs vary widely across states – the patchwork quilt approach•  Focus has been on the “what” of the CCSS, not the “how”
  • 3. 3Professional Teaching Standards•  Can provide a framework to: •  Define successful teachers of ELs’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions toward working with ELs •  Begin to support necessary skills teachers will need to implement the CCSS for ELs •  Provide a starting point to identify gaps in teachers’ expertise and design PD for teachers so that they can better support ELs in achieving the CCSS
  • 4. 4Session Outcomes•  Demonstrate understanding of: •  CCSS demands for ELs •  ESL teacher certification requirements •  National Board for Professional Teaching’s English as a New Language Standards •  TESOL International Association’s P-12 Professional Teaching Standards•  Identify gaps in teachers’ expertise to better prepare all teachers in your context to teach ELs during the implementation of the CCSS
  • 5. Staehr Fenner & Segota, 2012Implementation of CCSS: A SystemsApproach
  • 6. 6Guiding Questions•  Consider overall academic strengths and challenges for •  Duy •  Emilia•  What challenges will their teachers face in implementing the CCSS with them?•  What kind of skills will their teachers need?
  • 7. 7Duy Kim •  8 years old/3rd grade •  Born in US to Vietnamese parents •  Speaks only Vietnamese at home •  Parents read to him in Vietnamese •  Intermediate level of English language proficiency •  Loves going to the library and using computers •  Attends Vietnamese school on Saturdays
  • 8. 8Emilia Perez •  17 years old/9th grade •  Moved from Mexico at age 13 •  Attended school in Mexico until 4th grade •  Lives with aunt and uncle in US •  Works in grocery store after school •  Low literacy skills in Spanish •  Beginning level of ELP •  Worries about graduating
  • 9. Source: Achieve the Core 93 Shifts of the ELA/Literacy CCSS
  • 10. Achieve the Core 10ELA Shift 1 / ExpertiseShift Teacher Expertise NeededBuilding  knowledge   •  Build  ELs’  background  knowledge  about  the  nonfic3on  texts’  through  content-­‐rich   content  nonfic3on   •  Integrate  ELs’  background  knowledge  and  culture   •  Teach  ELs  informa3onal  text  vs.  literary  text  structure   •  Use  ELs’  L1  reading  literacy  skills  as  a  support   •  Adapt/supplement  grade  level  complex  texts  for  ELs  at   lower  levels  of  English  language  proficiency   •  Collaborate  to  share  effec3ve  strategies  for  teaching  ELs   using  nonfic3on   •  Scaffold  and  support  instruc3on  using  nonfic3on  for  ELs   •  Design  appropriate  classroom  assessments  so  that  ELs  can   demonstrate  what  they  know  and  can  do   •  Use  English  language  proficiency/development  standards   and  CCSS  to  support  instruc3on  
  • 11. Achieve the Core 11ELA Shift 2 / ExpertiseShift Teacher Expertise NeededReading,   •  Build  upon  students’  background  and  cultures;  build  background  wri3ng  and   where  necessary  on  using  evidence  speaking   •  Create  appropriate  text  dependent  ques3ons  for  students  at   different  levels  of  proficiency  grounded  in   •  Teach  ELs  the  academic  language  necessary  so  that  they  can  use  evidence  from   evidence  from  literary  and  informa3onal  text  in  reading,  speaking,  text,  both   listening,  and  wri3ng    literary  and   •  Provide  ELs  linguis3c  structures  to  succeed  informa3onal   •  Create  and  use  scaffolding  and  supports  so  that  ELs  at  different   levels  of  English  proficiency  can  take  part  in  meaningful   conversa3ons  and  wri3ng  using  a  grade-­‐level  text   •  Design  appropriate  classroom  assessments  for  ELs  at  different   levels  of  English  language  proficiency   •  Collaborate  to  share  effec3ve  strategies  for  teaching  ELs  to  cite   evidence  when  wri3ng  and  speaking   •  Use  ELD  standards  and  CCSS  to  support  instruc3on  
  • 12. Achieve the Core 12ELA Shift 3 / ExpertiseShift Teacher Expertise NeededRegular  prac3ce  with   •  Analyze  complex  texts  and  make  ELs  aware  of  discourse  and  complex  text  and  its   gramma3cal  structures  in  complex  texts  academic  language   •  Choose  and  adapt  supplementary  texts  in  English  and/or  the   L1  based  on  ELs’  reading  level,  English  language  proficiency   level,  background,  and  culture   •  Teach  strategies  to  guess  unknown  words  (e.g.,  cognates,   prefixes,  roots,  suffixes)   •  Recognize  and  teach  the  meaning  of  idioma3c  expressions   and  technical  terms   •  Explicitly  teach  the  academic  language  necessary  to   comprehend  complex  texts  so  that  ELs  can  use  academic   language  across  content  areas   •  Collaborate  to  share  effec3ve  strategies  for  teaching  ELs  to   read  complex  text  and  use  academic  language   •  Use  ELD  and  CCSS  standards  to  support  instruc3on  
  • 13. 13Reflection•  Which CCSS shifts are the most challenging for your teachers? Why?•  What kinds of professional development or support would your teachers need to address these CCSS shifts to effectively instruct your ELs?
  • 14. Ballantyne, Sanderman, & Levy (2008) 14Certification Requirements Related to ELs for AllTeachers•  Specific EL coursework and/or certification requirements – 4 states•  Use of National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) “unit” standards - 7 states•  Reference to unique challenges of ELs in certification standards - 17 states•  Reference to “language” as an example of diversity in certification standards - 8 states•  No requirements - 15 states
  • 15. TESOL, in press 15ESL Teacher Credentialing Requirements•  Endorsement - 33 states•  Full certification/licensure - 9 states•  Add-on Certificate - 6 states•  No information readily available - 2 states
  • 16. 16NBPTS and TESOL Standards•  Development•  Content overview•  Similarities
  • 17. 17NBPTS English as a New LanguageStandardsI.  Knowledge  of  Students  II.  Knowledge  of  Culture  and  Diversity  III.  Home,  School,  and  Community  Connec3ons  IV.  Knowledge  of  the  English  Language  V.  Knowledge  of  English  Language  Acquisi3on  VI.  Instruc3onal  Prac3ce  VII.  Assessment  VIII. Teacher  as  Learner  IX.  Professional  Leadership  and  Advocacy  
  • 18. 18TESOL’s Domains & Standards
  • 19. 19P-12 Professional Teaching Standards• Domain  1  –  Language   • 1.a.  Language  as  a  System   • 1.b.  Language  Acquisi3on  and  Development  • Domain  2  –  Culture   • Culture  as  It  Affects  Student  Learning  • Domain  3  –  Planning,  Implemen3ng,  and  Managing  Instruc3on     • 3.a.  Planning  for  Standards-­‐Based  ESL  and  Content  Instruc3on   • 3.b.  Implemen3ng  and  Managing  Standards-­‐Based  ESL  and  Content   Instruc3on   • 3.c.  Using  Resources  and  Technology  Effec3vely  in  ESL  and  Content   Instruc3on  
  • 20. 20P-12 Professional Teaching Standards• Domain  4  –  Assessment   • 4.a.  Issues  of  Assessment  for  English  Language  Learners   • 4.b.  Language  Proficiency  Assessment   • 4.c.  Classroom-­‐Based  Assessment  for  ESL  • Domain  5  –  Professionalism     • 5.a.  ESL  Research  and  History   • 5.b.  Professional  Development,  Partnerships,  and  Advocacy  
  • 21. 21NBPTS/TESOL Content CrosswalkNBPTS Standard TESOL StandardI.  Knowledge  of  Students   3.a.  Planning  for  Standards-­‐ Based  ESL  and  Content   Instruc3on  II.  Knowledge  of  Culture  and   2.  Culture  as  it  Affects  Student   Diversity   Learning  III.  Home,  School,  and   5.b.  Professional  Development,   Community  Connec3ons   Partnerships,  and  Advocacy  IV.  Knowledge  of  the  English   1.a.  Language  as  a  System   Language  V.  Knowledge  of  English   1.b.  Language  Acquisi3on  and   Language  Acquisi3on   Development  
  • 22. 22NBPTS/TESOL CrosswalkNBPTS Standard TESOL Standard(s)VI.  Instruc3onal  Prac3ce   3.a.  &  3.b.  Implemen3ng  and  Managing   Standards-­‐Based  ESL  and  Content  Instruc3on   3.c.  Using  Resources  and  Technology  Effec3vely  in   ESL  and  Content  Instruc3on  VII.  Assessment   4.a.  Issues  of  Assessment  for  English  Language   Learners   4.b.  Language  Proficiency  Assessment   4.c.  Classroom-­‐Based  Assessment  for  ELLs  VIII.  Teacher  as  Learner   5.b.  Professional  Development,  Partnerships,  and   Advocacy  IX.  Professional   5.a.  ESL  Research  and  History  Leadership  and  Advocacy   5.b.  Professional  Development,  Partnerships,  and   Advocacy  
  • 23. 23Understanding Language’s Principles forELL Instruction1.  Instruction focuses on providing ELLs with opportunities to engage in discipline- specific practices which are designed to build conceptual understanding and language competence in tandem.2.  Instruction leverages ELLs’ home language(s), cultural assets, and prior knowledge.3.  Standards-aligned instruction for ELLs is rigorous, grade-level appropriate, and provides deliberate and appropriate scaffolds.
  • 24. 24Understanding Language’s Principles forELL Instruction4.  Instruction moves ELLs forward by taking into account their English proficiency level(s) and prior schooling experiences.5.  Instruction fosters ELLs’ autonomy by equipping them with the strategies necessary to comprehend and use language in a variety of academic settings.6.  Diagnostic tools and formative assessment practices are employed to measure students’ content knowledge, academic language competence, and participation in disciplinary practices
  • 25. 25Discussion•  Which standards and principles are applicable to your teachers as they work with ELs and the shifts of the CCSS?•  What should the role of ESL/bilingual teachers be in implementing the CCSS?
  • 26. 26“Off Label” Uses of NBPTS & TESOLStandards for Teachers•  NBPTS and TESOL standards: a starting point to address the shifts of the ELA/Literacy CCSS, identify gaps, and plan professional development
  • 27. 27Know and Integrate ELs’ Culture in CCSSInstructionNBPTS  Standard  II. Knowledge of Culture and Diversity: Accomplished teachers of Englishlanguage learners model and build respect and appreciation for culturaldiversity, demonstrating to their students and others that students cansucceed academically while maintaining their cultural identities.  TESOL  Standard  2. Culture as it Affects Student Learning: Candidates know, understand,and use major theories and research related to the nature and role ofculture in their instruction. They demonstrate understanding of how culturalgroups and individual cultural identities affect language learning and schoolachievement.
  • 28. 28Leverage ELs’ L1, Cultural Assets, PriorKnowledge to Teach CCSSNBPTS  Standard  I. Knowledge of Students: Accomplished teachers of English languagelearners apply their knowledge of students’ language development,cultures, abilities, values, interests, and aspirations to facilitate theirstudents’ linguistic, academic, and social growth.  TESOL  Standard  3.a. Planning for Standards-Based ESL and Content Instruction:Candidates know, understand, and apply concepts, research, and bestpractices to plan classroom instruction in a supportive learningenvironment for ELLs. They plan for multilevel classrooms with learnersfrom diverse backgrounds using standards-based ESL and contentcurriculum.
  • 29. 29Understand Academic Language to Planand Implement Effective CCSS InstructionNBPTS  Standard  IV. Knowledge of the English Language: Accomplished teachers ofEnglish language learners have in-depth knowledge of the Englishlanguage and understand their students’ language needs.  TESOL  Standard  1.a. Language as a System: Candidates demonstrate understanding oflanguage as a system, including phonology, morphology, syntax,pragmatics and semantics, and support ELLs as they acquire Englishlanguage and literacy in order to achieve in the content areas.
  • 30. 30Apply Knowledge of Language Acquisitionin CCSS-Based InstructionNBPTS  Standard  V. Knowledge of English Language Acquisition: Accomplishedteachers of English language learners critically evaluate the ways in whichstudents acquire primary and new languages and apply this knowledge topromote their students’ success in learning English.  TESOL  Standard  1.b. Language Acquisition and Development: Candidates understandand apply theories and research in language acquisition and developmentto support their ELLs’ English language and literacy learning and content-area achievement.
  • 31. 31Instruct ELs Effectively by Drawing UponCCSS and ELD StandardsNBPTS  Standard  VI. Instructional Practice: Accomplished teachers of English languagelearners design supportive learning environments based on careful analysisof their students’ characteristics and on the linguistic and academic demandsof school. Teachers provide effective language and content instruction thatexpands students’ linguistic repertoire in English, allows them to achieveacademic success, and inspires them to acquire skills that will serve themthroughout their lives.TESOL  Standards  3.a. Planning for Standards-Based ESL and Content Instruction3.b. Implementing and Managing Standards-Based ESL and ContentInstruction3.c. Using Resources and Technology Effectively in ESL and ContentInstruction
  • 32. 32Assess ELs Equitably as Part of CCSSInstructionNBPTS  Standard  VII.  Assessment:  Accomplished  teachers  of  English  language  learners  employ  a  variety  of  prac3ces  to  assess  their  students  appropriately.  They  use  assessment  results  to  shape  instruc3on,  to  monitor  student  learning,  to  assist  students  in  reflec3ng  on  their  own  progress,  and  to  report  student  progress.  TESOL  Standards  4.a.  Issues  of  Assessment  for  English  Language  Learners  4.b.  Language  Proficiency  Assessment  4.c.  Classroom-­‐Based  Assessment  for  ELLs  
  • 33. 33Provide Professional Leadership andAdvocacy in CCSS ImplementationNBPTS  Standard  IX.  Professional  Leadership  and  Advocacy:  Accomplished  teachers  of  English  language  learners  contribute  to  the  professional  learning  of  their  colleagues  and  the  advancement  of  knowledge  in  their  field  in  order  to  advocate  for  their  students.  TESOL  Standards  Standard  5.a.  ESL  Research  and  History:  Candidates  demonstrate  knowledge  of  history,  research,  educa3onal  public  policy,  and  current  prac3ce  in  the  field  of  ESL  teaching  and  apply  this  knowledge  to  inform  teaching  and  learning.  Standard  5.b.  Professional  Development,  Partnerships,  and  Advocacy:    Candidates  take  advantage  of  professional  growth  opportuni3es  and  demonstrate  the  ability  to  build  partnerships  with  colleagues  and  students’  families,  serve  as  community  resources,  and  advocate  for  ELLs.  
  • 34. 34Questions
  • 35. 35References•  Ballantyne, K.G., Sanderman, A.R., Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/practice/ mainstream_teachers.htm•  Staehr Fenner, D. & Segota, J. (2012). Standards that impact English language learners. Washington, DC: Colorín Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/50848/#authors
  • 36. 36Thank You•  For more information: Diane@DSFConsulting.net www.dsfconsulting.net JSegota@TESOL.org www.tesol.org