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Chapter 3 notes communities, biomes and ecosystems

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  • 1. Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems
    Chapter 3
  • 2. Community Ecology
    Section 1
  • 3. Communities
    Community – all of the populations that live in the same area at the same time
    Limiting Factor – any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms
  • 4. Limiting Factors
    Abiotic
    Sunlight
    Climate
    Temperature
    Water
    Nutrients
    Fire
    Soil Chemistry
    Space
    Biotic
    Plant species
    Animal species
    Competition
    Parasitism
  • 5. Range of Tolerance
    Tolerance – the ability of any organism to survive when subjected to non-ideal biotic or abiotic conditions
    Steelhead Trout tolerate 9-25°C
  • 6. What Shapes an Ecosystem
    Ecological Succession
    As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further predictable changes in the community.
    Primary Succession
    Occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
    Example: new surface where volcanic eruptions occurred.
  • 7. Primary Succession
    http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/w70202lava-types04123.jpg
  • 8. Primary Succession
  • 9. What Shapes an Ecosystem
    Secondary Succession
    Occurs when land cleared and plowed for farming is abandoned. It also occurs where wildfires burn forests.
  • 10. Secondary Succession
    http://research.esd.ornl.gov/EMBYR/fire-crop.gif
    http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/00lect20sucn2.gif
  • 11. Terrestrial Biomes
    Section 2
  • 12. Effects of Latitude and Climate
    What is climate?
    Weather – the day to day conditions of the earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place
    Climate – average conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
  • 13. Effects of Latitude and Climate
    Factors that influence climate:
    Latitude
    Wind
    Shape and elevation of land masses
    Ocean Currents
  • 14. Latitude
  • 15. Effects of Latitude and Climate
    Effect of latitude on climate
    Tropical zone – receives direct sunlight year round
    Climate is always warm
    Temperate zone – angle of sunlight changes, so does the climate
    Climate will be warm or cold depending on the season
    Polar zone – sunlight strikes the earth at an angle
    Climate will be cold year round
  • 16. Wind
  • 17. Elevation
  • 18. Ocean Currents
  • 19. The Greenhouse Effect
    The greenhouse effect: a natural phenomenon that maintains the earth’s temperature range
    Gasses trap in heat much like the glass of a greenhouse
    Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
  • 20.
  • 21. Tundra
    Climate- cold (-94°F – 10°F) and dry (15-25cm/year)
    Characterized by permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
    Geographic location -south of the polar ice caps in the northern hemisphere
  • 22. Boreal Forest
    Climate- cold (-65°F – 69°F) and some rain(30-84cm/year)
    Characterized by lack of permafrost and some trees and shrubs
    Geographic location –northern parts of North America, Europe and Asia
  • 23. Temperate Forest
    Climate- (-22°F – 86°F) and fairly wet (75-150cm/year)
    Characterized by large deciduous forests
    Geographic location –Eastern North America, Eastern Asia, Australia and Europe
  • 24. Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
    Climate- hot (50°F – 104°F) and fairly dry(38-100 cm/year)
    Characterized by shrubs and small trees
    Geographic location –Western North America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa and Australia
  • 25. Temperate Grassland
    Climate- hot (-40°F – 100°F) and fairly dry(50-89 cm/year)
    Characterized by grasses and flowers
    Geographic location –North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Australia
  • 26. Desert
    Climate- temperature fluctuates and very dry(2-26 cm/year)
    Characterized by cacti, reptiles, birds
    Geographic location –every continent except europe
  • 27. Tropical Savanna
    Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(50-130 cm/year)
    Characterized by grasses and scattered trees
    Geographic location –Africa, South America and Australia
  • 28. Tropical Seasonal Forest
    Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(>200 cm/year)
    Characterized by trees, orchids, mosses and seasonal rainfall
    Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia
  • 29. Tropical Rain Forest
    Climate- warm (75°F – 80°F) and wet (200-1,000 cm/year)
    Characterized by broadleaf evergreens, bamboo, ferns
    Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia
  • 30. Aquatic Ecosystems
    Section 3.3
  • 31. Aquatic Ecosystems
    Determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry
    Chemistry – the amount of dissolved chemicals, especially salts, nutrients, and oxygen
    Two main types of aquatic ecosystems:
    Freshwater Ecosystems
    Marine Ecosystems (salt water)
  • 32. Aquatic Ecosystems
    Freshwater Ecosystems
    Flowing Water Ecosystems – freshwater ecosystems that flow over the land
    rivers, streams
    Standing Water Ecosystems – bodies of water that do not flow over the land
    Lakes, and ponds
  • 33. Aquatic Ecosystems
    Marine Ecosystems
    Photic zone – well lit area of the ocean
    Only to a depth of about 200 meters
    Where photosynthesis can take place
    Aphotic zone – permanently dark area of the ocean
  • 34. Aquatic Ecosystems
    Freshwater Wetlands – an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
    Include: bogs, marshes, and swamps
    They are important breeding grounds for migratory birds