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Chapter 3 notes   communities, biomes and ecosystems
 

Chapter 3 notes communities, biomes and ecosystems

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    Chapter 3 notes   communities, biomes and ecosystems Chapter 3 notes communities, biomes and ecosystems Presentation Transcript

    • Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems
      Chapter 3
    • Community Ecology
      Section 1
    • Communities
      Community – all of the populations that live in the same area at the same time
      Limiting Factor – any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms
    • Limiting Factors
      Abiotic
      Sunlight
      Climate
      Temperature
      Water
      Nutrients
      Fire
      Soil Chemistry
      Space
      Biotic
      Plant species
      Animal species
      Competition
      Parasitism
    • Range of Tolerance
      Tolerance – the ability of any organism to survive when subjected to non-ideal biotic or abiotic conditions
      Steelhead Trout tolerate 9-25°C
    • What Shapes an Ecosystem
      Ecological Succession
      As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further predictable changes in the community.
      Primary Succession
      Occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
      Example: new surface where volcanic eruptions occurred.
    • Primary Succession
      http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoregions/w70202lava-types04123.jpg
    • Primary Succession
    • What Shapes an Ecosystem
      Secondary Succession
      Occurs when land cleared and plowed for farming is abandoned. It also occurs where wildfires burn forests.
    • Secondary Succession
      http://research.esd.ornl.gov/EMBYR/fire-crop.gif
      http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/00lect20sucn2.gif
    • Terrestrial Biomes
      Section 2
    • Effects of Latitude and Climate
      What is climate?
      Weather – the day to day conditions of the earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place
      Climate – average conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
    • Effects of Latitude and Climate
      Factors that influence climate:
      Latitude
      Wind
      Shape and elevation of land masses
      Ocean Currents
    • Latitude
    • Effects of Latitude and Climate
      Effect of latitude on climate
      Tropical zone – receives direct sunlight year round
      Climate is always warm
      Temperate zone – angle of sunlight changes, so does the climate
      Climate will be warm or cold depending on the season
      Polar zone – sunlight strikes the earth at an angle
      Climate will be cold year round
    • Wind
    • Elevation
    • Ocean Currents
    • The Greenhouse Effect
      The greenhouse effect: a natural phenomenon that maintains the earth’s temperature range
      Gasses trap in heat much like the glass of a greenhouse
      Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor
    • Tundra
      Climate- cold (-94°F – 10°F) and dry (15-25cm/year)
      Characterized by permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
      Geographic location -south of the polar ice caps in the northern hemisphere
    • Boreal Forest
      Climate- cold (-65°F – 69°F) and some rain(30-84cm/year)
      Characterized by lack of permafrost and some trees and shrubs
      Geographic location –northern parts of North America, Europe and Asia
    • Temperate Forest
      Climate- (-22°F – 86°F) and fairly wet (75-150cm/year)
      Characterized by large deciduous forests
      Geographic location –Eastern North America, Eastern Asia, Australia and Europe
    • Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
      Climate- hot (50°F – 104°F) and fairly dry(38-100 cm/year)
      Characterized by shrubs and small trees
      Geographic location –Western North America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa and Australia
    • Temperate Grassland
      Climate- hot (-40°F – 100°F) and fairly dry(50-89 cm/year)
      Characterized by grasses and flowers
      Geographic location –North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Australia
    • Desert
      Climate- temperature fluctuates and very dry(2-26 cm/year)
      Characterized by cacti, reptiles, birds
      Geographic location –every continent except europe
    • Tropical Savanna
      Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(50-130 cm/year)
      Characterized by grasses and scattered trees
      Geographic location –Africa, South America and Australia
    • Tropical Seasonal Forest
      Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(>200 cm/year)
      Characterized by trees, orchids, mosses and seasonal rainfall
      Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia
    • Tropical Rain Forest
      Climate- warm (75°F – 80°F) and wet (200-1,000 cm/year)
      Characterized by broadleaf evergreens, bamboo, ferns
      Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia
    • Aquatic Ecosystems
      Section 3.3
    • Aquatic Ecosystems
      Determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry
      Chemistry – the amount of dissolved chemicals, especially salts, nutrients, and oxygen
      Two main types of aquatic ecosystems:
      Freshwater Ecosystems
      Marine Ecosystems (salt water)
    • Aquatic Ecosystems
      Freshwater Ecosystems
      Flowing Water Ecosystems – freshwater ecosystems that flow over the land
      rivers, streams
      Standing Water Ecosystems – bodies of water that do not flow over the land
      Lakes, and ponds
    • Aquatic Ecosystems
      Marine Ecosystems
      Photic zone – well lit area of the ocean
      Only to a depth of about 200 meters
      Where photosynthesis can take place
      Aphotic zone – permanently dark area of the ocean
    • Aquatic Ecosystems
      Freshwater Wetlands – an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
      Include: bogs, marshes, and swamps
      They are important breeding grounds for migratory birds