Ancient China

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Ancient China

  1. 1. Ancient China Yeah, it’s awesome too
  2. 2. Himalayas Gobi Desert River Valleys
  3. 3. From the map <ul><li>What does China have in common with all of the other ancient civilizations we have studied? </li></ul><ul><li>RIVERS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Yellow River
  5. 5. Yangtze River
  6. 6. Three Gorges Dam
  7. 7. Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>Has displaced over 1 million people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone in Champaign-Urbana, Bloomington, Danville, Springfield, and Peoria has to pick up an move. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The government is making them move for benefit of the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think that this is right or wrong? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the U.S. Government made all of you pick up and move to another state, would you? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>It’s said that because of the amount of water held by the dam, the earth’s rotation could be altered </li></ul><ul><li>DAAAAAAAAAM! </li></ul>
  9. 11. Chinese Climate <ul><li>Monsoon Season – Winter </li></ul><ul><li>Months and months of just rain </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for farmable land in China </li></ul>
  10. 15. China’s culture <ul><li>Is ancient China more similar or more different than the other cultures we have studied? </li></ul><ul><li>Is modern China more similar or more different than our culture? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this difference reflect China’s geography? </li></ul>
  11. 17. Mt. Everest
  12. 18. Gobi Desert
  13. 20. Their surroundings? <ul><li>Mt. Everest – highest mountain in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the Himalayas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Gobi Desert – 4 th largest and 1 st driest desert in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s hot! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Himalayas Gobi Desert River Valleys What does it all add up to?
  15. 22. Ancient Chinese Culture <ul><li>It is very unique because China is extremely isolated from the rest of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>It makes sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They never were contacted by other groups, thus their culture developed very uniquely </li></ul></ul>
  16. 23. Political Structure/ philosophy <ul><li>Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the Mandate of Heaven handout and answer the questions attached for homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the Mandate, under what circumstances did the people have a right to revolt? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 24. Mandate of Heaven <ul><ul><li>Heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but would be displeased with a despotic ruler and would withdraw its mandate. The Mandate of Heaven would then transfer to those who would rule best. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Social Structure <ul><li>Filial Piety </li></ul><ul><li>Filial means son or daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Piety means respect </li></ul><ul><li>What does filial piety mean? </li></ul>
  19. 26. Filial piety <ul><li>Obedience to one’s ancestors because of love and respect </li></ul>
  20. 27. A Woman’s Place <ul><li>“ A clever man builds a city, </li></ul><ul><li>A clever woman lays one low; </li></ul><ul><li>With all her qualifications, </li></ul><ul><li>that clever woman is but an ill-omened bird.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the woman’s place, do you think? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. Chinese philosophy/religion <ul><li>First up is Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Started in India </li></ul><ul><li>This caught on in China for a number of reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism spread because of the Silk Road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just silk, remember? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhism had many characteristics from other Chinese philosophies </li></ul>
  22. 29. Buddhism’s principal beliefs <ul><li>The physical surroundings are an illusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material things are pointless, and they cause us pain because we care about them too much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letting go of your worldly cares can bring you close to peace and one with the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called nirvana </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. Four Noble Truths <ul><li>Ordinary life is full of suffering </li></ul><ul><li>This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>The way to end the suffering is to end selfish desire and to see others as extensions of ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path </li></ul><ul><li>ANYONE CAN DO THIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha rejected castes </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. The Chinese LOVED THIS <ul><li>They were in rigid social classes as well, but their rulers didn’t mind if their subjects tried to reach heaven </li></ul>
  25. 32. Chinese religion/philosophy <ul><li>Confucianism founded by Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>His interests were not religious, but philosophical </li></ul><ul><li>Known as “the first teacher” </li></ul>
  26. 33. Confucianism <ul><li>Confucius believed in merit-based government </li></ul><ul><li>Merit-based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you studied hard and got an A in Government class, you might be pushed to go into politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruling is not just for the elite, but for those who can serve well </li></ul></ul>
  27. 34. Confucianism <ul><li>What do Confucists believe? </li></ul><ul><li>Serve your family, and those in power above you. </li></ul><ul><li>Be subservient b/c you should respect your ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think about being subservient to all those above and older than you as a belief system? </li></ul>
  28. 35. Chinese religion/philosophy <ul><li>Daoism (Taoism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the teaching of Lao Tzu (Laoze) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like Confucianism, was not concerned with the meaning of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to improve the world, was not to do things, but to practice inaction </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this philosophy attractive? </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>“ The universe is sacred </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot improve it </li></ul><ul><li>If you try to change it, you will ruin it </li></ul><ul><li>If you try to hold it, you will lose it.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Lao Tsu </li></ul><ul><li>What did Taoists think about nature? </li></ul>
  30. 37. Daoism <ul><li>Taoists had a deep reverence for nature </li></ul>
  31. 38. Chinese Religion/Philosophy <ul><li>Legalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No official founder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legalists’ beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>People are naturally bad </li></ul><ul><li>Laws should be impersonal and harsh </li></ul>
  32. 39. Legalism <ul><li>People should be ruled by a strong powerful leader to control them </li></ul><ul><li>Who do you think came up with the idea that China should be rules by a strong leader with lots of power? </li></ul>
  33. 40. Not built in a Day: The Great Wall
  34. 41. The Who: <ul><li>Parts of the wall were built by previous rulers </li></ul><ul><li>First emperor of Qin Dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, connected all the differing parts of wall, making it a single “wall” of rammed earth (more like a mound) </li></ul><ul><li>Forced many workers to build the wall and many died </li></ul>
  35. 42. The What: <ul><li>World’s longest man-made structure </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3,948 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable whether visible from space (many believe binoculars and clear weather conditions are needed) </li></ul>
  36. 43. The Where: <ul><li>Located in China </li></ul><ul><li>Starts at Bo Hai Sea in the east and extends east to protect the treasure that is, Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Qin Shi Huang’s wall was located further north than the Great Wall today—little of the ‘original’ exists today </li></ul>
  37. 44. The When: <ul><li>‘Original’ Qin Shi Huang wall started in 208 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Various walls built by other dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Great Wall as we see it today was built by the Ming Dynasty from 1560-1640 CE in reaction to the Mongols’ siege of Beijing in 1550 CE </li></ul>
  38. 45. The Why: <ul><li>Built to keep out the nomadic tribes from the north (modern-day Mongolia & Manchuria) </li></ul><ul><li>Also frontier demarcation (“You’re in my territory now!”) </li></ul>
  39. 46. The How: <ul><li>Quarried what was available in the area: limestone, granite </li></ul><ul><li>Fired bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Would build two big outer walls, fill in between with dirt and rubble, then pave over the top, thus connecting the two walls </li></ul><ul><li>In desert locales, used dirt rammed between wood tied together with woven mats </li></ul>
  40. 47. Juyongguan
  41. 48. Juyongguan <ul><li>37 miles northwest of Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Strategically protected Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>One of three greatest passes of the Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>What is seen now at Juyongguan was built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and renovated in the 1990s </li></ul>
  42. 49. Let’s get Started !!
  43. 50. On the way to Station #1: kinda crowded
  44. 51. Whew! One down…. View from Watch Tower Engraved certificate, anyone?
  45. 55. Graffiti, the universal language

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