Background <ul><li>In ancient times art was used to communicate primitive images such as evil spirits, fertility, love, war, fear and death. </li></ul><ul><li>As man became civilized these images became more sophisticated and art became a tool of a bigger purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Assyria for example, art was used to construct cities, palaces, libraries, hanging gardens, sculpture, reliefs and texts. </li></ul>
Reasons to use Art <ul><li>Assyrians used art to educate and to shape their society and to establish human identity. </li></ul><ul><li>they also used art to influence other societies around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrian rulers found that if a society engages in creating and preserving culture through art, the society flourishes internally and spreads its influence through other regions. </li></ul>
Continued… <ul><li>The Assyrians more than any society used art to establish the emergence of a super-culture. </li></ul><ul><li>They also used it to influence world opinion. </li></ul>
Examples of Art <ul><li>Assyrian art was usually Guardian animals, like lions and winged beasts with bearded human heads. </li></ul><ul><li>They were sculpted partially in the round for fortified royal gateways. </li></ul>
Sphinx of Giza <ul><li>Located on the west bank of the Nile river within the Giza pyramid fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest and oldest single stone statue in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Face of a man and body of a Lion carved out of limestone bedrock is 65 ft in tall and 240 ft long. </li></ul>
Egyptian Architecture Egyptian architecture is very extrodinary. Some examples of this is their pyramids and the temples.
Pyramids <ul><li>The first pyramid was built for the king Zoser and is located at Saqqara. </li></ul><ul><li>The most well known is the Great Pyramid at Giza and was built for king Khufu. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be up to 482 ft. tall, taller then the Statue of Liberty. </li></ul><ul><li>The insides were highly decorated with hieroglyphics and statues. </li></ul><ul><li>Decoration depended upon wealth and social standings. </li></ul>
Temples <ul><li>The temples were thought to be the homes of Gods and Goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Only priests were allowed to enter into the most inner chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>The front is made up of the façade and the obelisks. </li></ul><ul><li>Only on special occasions were people allowed to enter into the courtyard, but they were never allowed any further. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside each temple would be a statue of the god or goddess to whom the temple was dedicated. </li></ul>
Death – or rather, everlasting life in the hereafter – provided the focus of much of the art of the Egyptians. <ul><li>Art and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>centered on the </li></ul><ul><li>provision of an </li></ul><ul><li>eternal dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>place for the dead. </li></ul>
The alabaster canopic jars are where King Tutankhamun's internal organs where placed for their journey into the afterlife. Canopic jars would usually represent the four sons of the god Horus . In this case, they are beautifully carved in the likeness of the young king.
Egyptians thought that making a likeness of an individual captured the soul.
The years around 2700 B.C.E. brought forth the most remarkable edifices of Egyptian civilization- the pyramids of Giza. <ul><li>Egypt’s pyramids are the oldest existing buildings in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest stands taller than a forty-story building and covers an area greater than that of ten football fields. </li></ul>
The Entombment of Christ <ul><li>Painted by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in 1602-03. </li></ul><ul><li>Christ has been taken down from the cross and is being laid on the “Anointing Stone,” the traditional spot where his body was washed and wrapped in linen before burial. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant people included in this painting are Mary of Cleopas, Christ, John, Mary Magdalene, Virgin Mary, and Nicodemus. </li></ul>
Archaic Style <ul><li>Archaic styles are nude youths. </li></ul><ul><li>This statue is called a Kouroi meaning, “male youth” </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpted by Fletcher Fund in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>Made of marble </li></ul><ul><li>Height 6 feet 4 inches </li></ul>
Architectural Styles <ul><li>Doric style: sturdy and its top looks plain. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic style: thinner and a little more detailed. Its top is designed like a scroll. </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian style: Its top is very detailed and decorated with acanthus leaves. </li></ul>
Archaic Vases <ul><li>On the left is a amphora of Hercules Wrestling the Nemean Lion </li></ul><ul><li>Dates to about 525 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>In archaic vases the background is usually red with black silhouette-like figures </li></ul><ul><li>Detail is often scratched into the figures to make them more realistic </li></ul>
Hebrew Art <ul><li>There are many different styles of Hebrew art. The Bible and the Solomon Temple are a few that are shown in the following slides. </li></ul><ul><li>These examples took place in Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Hebrew Art dates back as far as 1000 B.C.E. </li></ul>
Hebrew Art- Solomon’s Temple <ul><li>Solomon's Temple , also known as the First Temple , was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>It functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. Completed in the 10 th century BC, it was destroyed by the Babylon's in 586 BC. The reconstructed temple in Jerusalem, which stood between 516 BC and AD 70, was the Second Temple. </li></ul><ul><li>The following slide is a art depiction of the Temple. </li></ul>
Hebrew Art- The Bible <ul><li>Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian biblical canons. In its Latin form, Biblia Hebraica , traditionally serves as a title for printed editions of the masorectic text. </li></ul><ul><li>Many scholars advocate use of the term Hebrew Bible when discussing these books in academic writing, as a neutral substitute to terms with religious connotations. </li></ul>
Hebrew Art <ul><li>Offered on the next slide are images indicative of Hebrew art, revealing the beauty and meticulous symbolism of that tradition. They speak from the past of an uprooted people, making their homes and lives where they could, carrying their faith to foreign lands. </li></ul>
INSTRUCTOR: JULIE F. THOMAS HUMANITIES 191 STUDENT: CRISTINA P. MARSHALL ANCIENT APPROACHES AMERICA: PRE-COLUMBIAN STUDIES
PRE-COLUMBIAN STUDIES The Pre-Columbian Program at Dumbarton Oaks was founded in 1963 to support the study of the art and archaeology of the ancient Americas. Research focuses on cultures of the western hemisphere from northern Mexico to southern South America, from the early archaic period to the sixteenth century. The activities of the Pre-Columbian Program include residential fellowships, grants for field research, scholarly meetings, publications, and activities with the Robert Woods Bliss Collection of Pre-Columbian Art and the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library.
Huaxtec Probably state of Veracruz, Mexico Female deity Sandstone H. 28 3/8" (72.1 cm); W. 16" (40.7 cm) B-533.63.MS Classic Veracruz State of Veracruz, Mexico Hacha Stone H. 7 1/4" (18.5 cm); W. 4 1/4" (10.9 cm) B-555.66.VCS
The Tell Asmar Statutes Shacora Jones Humanities 191 (9:15-10:20) PowerPoint Slide Week Six
Tell Asmar Figures (2700 BC) - These are three-dimensional statuettes made of marble. The tallest figure is about 30 inches in height. He represents the god of vegetation. The next tallest represents a mother goddess-mother goddesses were common in many ancient cultures.
They were worshipped in the hope that they would bring fertility to women and to crops. (Another connection to African culture.)
The next largest figures are priests. The smallest figures are worshippers---a definite HIERARCHY of size. This is an example of ARTISTIC ICONOGRAPHY. We learn to read picture symbols---bodies are cylindrical and scarcely differentiated by gender, with their uplifted heads and hands clasped. This is a pose of supplication-wanting or waiting for something.
<ul><li>King Tutankhamun lived about 3,300 years ago, during the period known as the New Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>He was born to Akhenaten and Kiya. </li></ul><ul><li>King Tutankhamun became king at the age of nine after the death of his father. </li></ul><ul><li>There is very little information about the king life, because King Tutankhamun died when he was a teenager. </li></ul>
The Discovery of the Tomb <ul><li>In November 1922, King Tutankhamun Tomb was discovered by Howard Carter. </li></ul><ul><li>This reconstruction shows the moment Howard Carter removed the outer coffin from the sarcaphagus. </li></ul><ul><li>The coffin had three chambers. </li></ul>
Tutankhamun’s Treasure <ul><li>The kings gold inner coffin, shown here displays a quality of workmanship and an attention to detail which is unsurpassed. </li></ul><ul><li>The coffin is made of solid gold. It is 74” long, 20” wide and 20” high. </li></ul><ul><li>The king is shown as Osiris holding the crook and flail, traditional symbols of kingship. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Shown here are elaborate set of Canopic continers. </li></ul><ul><li>The calcite Canopic chest, with the stoppers in the form of the king, contained four amazing canopic coffins. </li></ul><ul><li>These seem to have been intended for the same individual as the second coffin. </li></ul>
<ul><li>This delicately inlaid circlet was found on the head of the mummy when it was unwrapped. </li></ul><ul><li>It represents yet another example of the fine detail which the ancient craftsmen included in the kings jewelry. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nefertiti was born around 1390 B.C.E. Her name means “the beautiful one has come”. </li></ul><ul><li>She is believed to be the daughter of Ay and Tiy. Ay is known later on as Pharoah. </li></ul><ul><li>She was born into the Egyptian royal court. Her name is also associated with a strand of bead called nefer, in which she was known for wearing. </li></ul>
<ul><li>At the age of fifteen Nefertiti and King Amenhotep IV, age sixteen, was married. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep became king after the death of his father. In his fifth year of leadership he changed his name to Akhenathen. Queen Nefertiti played a vital role in his leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>King Akhenathen, and Queen Nefertiti were parents to six daughters and possibly one son. </li></ul>
<ul><li>King Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti and three of their daughters. </li></ul>
<ul><li>After fourteen years of King Akhenaton's leadership, in 1336 BC, Queen Nefertiti disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>There is some belief that she may have died five days before her 40 th birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe she may have taken on the role of a male, the possible son they was believed to have. </li></ul><ul><li>It is said she later became pharoah, after her husband’s death. </li></ul>
Hello Kenny the Caveman here. I’ll be your host to take you through the Stone Age Period. Our show today will cover the cave paintings
Stone Age reaches back beyond one million years B. C. Stone Age Art probably began around 25000 to 30,000 and in its earliest consisted of simple lines scratched in damp clay. The next phase was black outline drawings of animals with a single colored filler mark. Next came the addition of a second color within the outline, to create a sense of light and shade. The third phase in the development consist of exciting multicolored paintings in impressive realistic style.
Want to see something cool. The Hall of Bulls. This is art from the third phrase .
How about this one Standing bison. This would be an example of the phase two.
It looks like he’s trying to tell me it’s time to go.
Well join me next week when we will be discussing all of our tools .
The Statues <ul><li>The largest statues figure represent Abu (the king), next to him is his wife, and the rest are worshipers </li></ul><ul><li>These statues were made as an act of worship to the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the worshippers were hope to bring fertility to women and to crops </li></ul>
Vast eyes <ul><li>Every Element of the statue is reduced to the simplest form except the face. The reason why it was created this way is because the face reinforces power. </li></ul>
The Art <ul><li>The arms are distant from the body representing prayer </li></ul><ul><li>The form of the statues is based on cylinder or cone. </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum is the material that the statues are made of </li></ul>
Sumerian Art <ul><li>The art was used for communication </li></ul><ul><li>The statues were also used for social hierarchy and those that understood the art communicated detailed truths about the world </li></ul>