Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability

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Powerpoint from Chapter 5 of Energy for Sustainability

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Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability

  1. 1. Energy for Sustainability Randolph & Masters, 2008 Chapter 5: Energy Analysis & Life-Cycle Assessment
  2. 2. Life Cycle Assessment <ul><li>“Sustainability” Analysis: energy, economic, environmental “Cradle-to-Grave” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Check out this video on life cycle <ul><li>http:// www.storyofstuff.com / </li></ul>
  4. 4. Life Cycle Assessment: sometimes counter-intuitive Energy
  5. 5. Waste
  6. 8. Life-cycle Assessment <ul><li>Energy Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Cost-effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Assessment </li></ul>
  7. 9. Energy Analysis <ul><li>Various metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency ( η ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy return on investment (EROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy payback time (EPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel ratio (FFR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum input ratio (PIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net energy value (NEV) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Energy Balance <ul><li>E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy) </li></ul><ul><li>E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>E i = indirect energy input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s ) </li></ul>
  9. 11. Energy Analysis Metrics <ul><li>E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy) </li></ul><ul><li>E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>E i = indirect energy input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s ) </li></ul>
  10. 12. Energy Analysis Metrics: Efficiency <ul><li>E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy) </li></ul><ul><li>E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>E i = indirect energy input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s ) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Metrics: Net Energy <ul><li>E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy) </li></ul><ul><li>E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>E i = indirect energy input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s ) </li></ul>
  12. 14. Metrics: Focus on Carbon, Petroleum <ul><li>E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy) </li></ul><ul><li>E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>E i = indirect energy input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s ) </li></ul>
  13. 15. EROI for various energy sources
  14. 16. Contradictory Studies on EROI, NEV of Corn-based Ethanol
  15. 17. Compare ethanol to gasoline: EROI not as important and Net Fossil Fuel
  16. 18. Farrell, et al., Science , 2006 Net Energy & Petroleum Input
  17. 19. Energy Input and Carbon Emissions
  18. 20. Getting Energy Use Data <ul><li>Billing meters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., gasoline pumps, electric, natural gas meters) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor run-time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy used = run-time (hrs) x energy/time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Submeters, data loggers </li></ul>
  19. 21. Dataloggers
  20. 22. Economic Analysis <ul><li>Economic value of energy: price </li></ul>
  21. 23. Volatility: Price of Gasoline in U.S., 1999-2007
  22. 24. Time value of money $100
  23. 25. Time-value doesn’t matter much for short time periods and low discount rates <ul><li>Present value of $100 Future dollars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d=4%, n=10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d=1%, n=10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d=10%, n=0.5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d=10%, n=10 years </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Simple Payback Period (SPP) <ul><li>Time to payback initial cost with energy savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IC = initial cost (or cost difference when comparing options), $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AES = annual energy savings, energy units/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pr = energy price, $/energy unit </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) <ul><li>Cost per unit energy saved that can be compared to existing rates </li></ul>CRF takes one-time payment and spreads it out over the lifetime (n) of the measure based on a discount rate (d)
  26. 28. Other Economic Factors
  27. 29. Other Economic Measures
  28. 30. What is Cost-effective? <ul><li>SPP < life of measure </li></ul><ul><li>CCE < current energy price </li></ul><ul><li>PVS > IC </li></ul><ul><li>NPV > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>BCR > 1 </li></ul>
  29. 31. SPP and Market Penetration
  30. 32. Conservation Supply Curve (CSC): plots cost per unit saved v. cumulative savings
  31. 33. CSC for U.S. electricity, 1990: each step is an efficiency measure
  32. 34. Economic Analysis Spreadsheet
  33. 35. Environmental Analysis Energy Use Impact/energy Impact
  34. 36. Electricity depends on location
  35. 37. Carbon Footprint Calculator
  36. 38. Calculating Emissions and Offsets <ul><li>Input energy use, spreadsheet calculates carbon emissions and “green tags” and trees to plant to offset emissions. </li></ul>

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