• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability
 

Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability

on

  • 683 views

Powerpoint from Chapter 5 of Energy for Sustainability

Powerpoint from Chapter 5 of Energy for Sustainability

Statistics

Views

Total Views
683
Views on SlideShare
682
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://127172.myauthorsite.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability Chapter 5 Powerpoint_Energy for Sustainability Presentation Transcript

    • Energy for Sustainability Randolph & Masters, 2008 Chapter 5: Energy Analysis & Life-Cycle Assessment
    • Life Cycle Assessment
      • “Sustainability” Analysis: energy, economic, environmental “Cradle-to-Grave”
    • Check out this video on life cycle
      • http:// www.storyofstuff.com /
    • Life Cycle Assessment: sometimes counter-intuitive Energy
    • Waste
    •  
    •  
    • Life-cycle Assessment
      • Energy Analysis
      • Economic Cost-effectiveness
      • Environmental Assessment
    • Energy Analysis
      • Various metrics
        • Efficiency ( η )
        • Energy return on investment (EROI)
        • Energy payback time (EPT)
        • Fossil fuel ratio (FFR)
        • Petroleum input ratio (PIR)
        • Net energy value (NEV)
    • Energy Balance
      • E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy)
      • E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel)
      • E i = indirect energy input
        • E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel)
        • E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device)
      • t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s )
    • Energy Analysis Metrics
      • E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy)
      • E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel)
      • E i = indirect energy input
        • E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel)
        • E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device)
      • t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s )
    • Energy Analysis Metrics: Efficiency
      • E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy)
      • E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel)
      • E i = indirect energy input
        • E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel)
        • E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device)
      • t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s )
    • Metrics: Net Energy
      • E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy)
      • E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel)
      • E i = indirect energy input
        • E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel)
        • E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device)
      • t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s )
    • Metrics: Focus on Carbon, Petroleum
      • E o = energy output (e.g., useful energy)
      • E d = direct energy input (e.g., fuel)
      • E i = indirect energy input
        • E ic = indirect energy – continuous (e.g., energy to produce fuel)
        • E iot = indirect energy – one-time (e.g., energy to make device)
      • t s = system life ( used to convert E iot to annual energy E iot /t s )
    • EROI for various energy sources
    • Contradictory Studies on EROI, NEV of Corn-based Ethanol
    • Compare ethanol to gasoline: EROI not as important and Net Fossil Fuel
    • Farrell, et al., Science , 2006 Net Energy & Petroleum Input
    • Energy Input and Carbon Emissions
    • Getting Energy Use Data
      • Billing meters
        • (e.g., gasoline pumps, electric, natural gas meters)
      • Monitor run-time:
        • energy used = run-time (hrs) x energy/time
      • Submeters, data loggers
    • Dataloggers
    • Economic Analysis
      • Economic value of energy: price
    • Volatility: Price of Gasoline in U.S., 1999-2007
    • Time value of money $100
    • Time-value doesn’t matter much for short time periods and low discount rates
      • Present value of $100 Future dollars:
        • d=4%, n=10 years
        • d=1%, n=10 years
        • d=10%, n=0.5 years
        • d=10%, n=10 years
    • Simple Payback Period (SPP)
      • Time to payback initial cost with energy savings
        • IC = initial cost (or cost difference when comparing options), $
        • AES = annual energy savings, energy units/year
        • Pr = energy price, $/energy unit
    • Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE)
      • Cost per unit energy saved that can be compared to existing rates
      CRF takes one-time payment and spreads it out over the lifetime (n) of the measure based on a discount rate (d)
    • Other Economic Factors
    • Other Economic Measures
    • What is Cost-effective?
      • SPP < life of measure
      • CCE < current energy price
      • PVS > IC
      • NPV > 0
      • BCR > 1
    • SPP and Market Penetration
    • Conservation Supply Curve (CSC): plots cost per unit saved v. cumulative savings
    • CSC for U.S. electricity, 1990: each step is an efficiency measure
    • Economic Analysis Spreadsheet
    • Environmental Analysis Energy Use Impact/energy Impact
    • Electricity depends on location
    • Carbon Footprint Calculator
    • Calculating Emissions and Offsets
      • Input energy use, spreadsheet calculates carbon emissions and “green tags” and trees to plant to offset emissions.