“What if pathogens get           in?”• White blood cells take over and specifically identify and  eliminate the pathogen.•...
Organs of the Immune       System          White blood cells          called leukocytes          Made thymus and        ...
How does your body           know    there is an invader?• All pathogens have “distinct” antigens.• Antigens are marker pr...
Antibodies• Your white blood cells produce antibodies in  response to specific antigens.• These are specific to each patho...
Building “Immunity”• What happens if a pathogen makes it  past the first lines of defense and avoids  the inflammation res...
“The Soldiers”• Many types of WBC  work together during  the immune response to  fight the infection.• Macrophages• Lympho...
“The Soldiers”• 3 major classes of  lymphocytes:  1) B-cells (plasma cells)  2) T-cells       -Helper T cells       -Kille...
Step #1 “Invader          Identification”• Macrophages identify pathogen, eat it, display  antigens, signal helper T cells...
• Helper T cells release interleukin 2 – signals  help other leukocytes (other T-cells and B-cells)
Step #2 “Cloning           Phase”• B cells make antibodies - lock onto  antigens.“Marked for death.”             Antibodie...
Step #3 “The Attack Phase”• Killer T cells kill infected body cells.
Step #3 “The Attack          Phase”• Macrophages clean up- eating pathogens,  damaged body cells, etc.• Suppressor T cells...
Step #4 “Memory          Phase”• Memory cells “remember” the attack and  recognize a pathogen if it re-enters body.• Prima...
Active vs. Passive          Immunity• Active = your body must fight off the  disease to build up antibodies. Ex.)  Fightin...
Specific immunity
Specific immunity
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Specific immunity

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Specific immunity

  1. 1. “What if pathogens get in?”• White blood cells take over and specifically identify and eliminate the pathogen.• White blood cells = “soldiers”• Immune Response
  2. 2. Organs of the Immune System White blood cells called leukocytes Made thymus and bone marrow Stored tonsils, spleen, and lymph nodes.
  3. 3. How does your body know there is an invader?• All pathogens have “distinct” antigens.• Antigens are marker proteins- trigger immune response• Your body must recognize antigens in order to identify and defeat the pathogen.• Normal cells also have antigens. Antigen
  4. 4. Antibodies• Your white blood cells produce antibodies in response to specific antigens.• These are specific to each pathogen.• All pathogens are unique, your immune system has to prepare a specific defense against each invader.• If you makes/have the antibodies it can kill the pathogen and you can fight the infection.• B-cells (type of white blood cell) make the antibodies!
  5. 5. Building “Immunity”• What happens if a pathogen makes it past the first lines of defense and avoids the inflammation response?• Your body must “actively” fight the disease.• This takes time.• This requires a special group of white blood cells  lymphocytes.
  6. 6. “The Soldiers”• Many types of WBC work together during the immune response to fight the infection.• Macrophages• Lymphocytes
  7. 7. “The Soldiers”• 3 major classes of lymphocytes: 1) B-cells (plasma cells) 2) T-cells -Helper T cells -Killer T cells -Suppressor T cells 3) Memory cells
  8. 8. Step #1 “Invader Identification”• Macrophages identify pathogen, eat it, display antigens, signal helper T cells (interleukin-1).• Body temperature will increase (interleukin-1) in attempt to slow down pathogen.
  9. 9. • Helper T cells release interleukin 2 – signals help other leukocytes (other T-cells and B-cells)
  10. 10. Step #2 “Cloning Phase”• B cells make antibodies - lock onto antigens.“Marked for death.” Antibodies Antigen
  11. 11. Step #3 “The Attack Phase”• Killer T cells kill infected body cells.
  12. 12. Step #3 “The Attack Phase”• Macrophages clean up- eating pathogens, damaged body cells, etc.• Suppressor T cells “call off the troops” stopping the immune response.
  13. 13. Step #4 “Memory Phase”• Memory cells “remember” the attack and recognize a pathogen if it re-enters body.• Primary vs. secondary immune response
  14. 14. Active vs. Passive Immunity• Active = your body must fight off the disease to build up antibodies. Ex.) Fighting an infection or Vaccination• Passive = receiving antibodies from an outside source. Ex.) Breast feeding

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