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Specific immunity
 

Specific immunity

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    Specific immunity Specific immunity Presentation Transcript

    • “What if pathogens get in?”• White blood cells take over and specifically identify and eliminate the pathogen.• White blood cells = “soldiers”• Immune Response
    • Organs of the Immune System White blood cells called leukocytes Made thymus and bone marrow Stored tonsils, spleen, and lymph nodes.
    • How does your body know there is an invader?• All pathogens have “distinct” antigens.• Antigens are marker proteins- trigger immune response• Your body must recognize antigens in order to identify and defeat the pathogen.• Normal cells also have antigens. Antigen
    • Antibodies• Your white blood cells produce antibodies in response to specific antigens.• These are specific to each pathogen.• All pathogens are unique, your immune system has to prepare a specific defense against each invader.• If you makes/have the antibodies it can kill the pathogen and you can fight the infection.• B-cells (type of white blood cell) make the antibodies!
    • Building “Immunity”• What happens if a pathogen makes it past the first lines of defense and avoids the inflammation response?• Your body must “actively” fight the disease.• This takes time.• This requires a special group of white blood cells  lymphocytes.
    • “The Soldiers”• Many types of WBC work together during the immune response to fight the infection.• Macrophages• Lymphocytes
    • “The Soldiers”• 3 major classes of lymphocytes: 1) B-cells (plasma cells) 2) T-cells -Helper T cells -Killer T cells -Suppressor T cells 3) Memory cells
    • Step #1 “Invader Identification”• Macrophages identify pathogen, eat it, display antigens, signal helper T cells (interleukin-1).• Body temperature will increase (interleukin-1) in attempt to slow down pathogen.
    • • Helper T cells release interleukin 2 – signals help other leukocytes (other T-cells and B-cells)
    • Step #2 “Cloning Phase”• B cells make antibodies - lock onto antigens.“Marked for death.” Antibodies Antigen
    • Step #3 “The Attack Phase”• Killer T cells kill infected body cells.
    • Step #3 “The Attack Phase”• Macrophages clean up- eating pathogens, damaged body cells, etc.• Suppressor T cells “call off the troops” stopping the immune response.
    • Step #4 “Memory Phase”• Memory cells “remember” the attack and recognize a pathogen if it re-enters body.• Primary vs. secondary immune response
    • Active vs. Passive Immunity• Active = your body must fight off the disease to build up antibodies. Ex.) Fighting an infection or Vaccination• Passive = receiving antibodies from an outside source. Ex.) Breast feeding