Believed African-American support for the war would lead to racial equality at home
The majority of blacks sided with DuBois
William Monroe Trotter
Believed that victims of racism should not support racial governments
Condemned DuBois’ approach
Massive movement of African-Americans from the South to the North
Jim Crowe Laws
Bug infestation, floods and droughts ruined cotton fields
Ford’s assembly line was opened to black workers
Lack of European immigration caused a labor shortage at the factories
Recruiters gave free railroad passes and free housing
Took place in the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s
African-American literature, art, music, dance, and social commentary began to flourish in Harlem, a section of New York City
This African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement"
Known later as the Harlem Renaissance
Redefined African-American expression
African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate their heritage
Main factors contributing to the development of the Harlem Renaissance
African-American urban migration
Trends toward experimentation throughout the country
The rise of radical African-American intellectuals
The Harlem Renaissance transformed African-American identity and history, but it also transformed American culture in general. Never before had so many Americans read the thoughts of African-Americans and embraced the African-American community's productions, expressions, and style
Spirituals arose in the early 19th century among African American slaves who had been denied the opportunity to practice traditional African religions
The "call and response" pattern in which they are typically performed are compared to worship traditions in West Africa
Slaves were able to create a religious refuge from their dehumanizing condition, affirming their humanity as individuals
Spirituals were the inspiration behind a new music genre: Jazz
Cab Calloway Mini the Moocher Paul Robeson Swing Low Sweet Chariot
Folks, now here's the story 'bout Minnie the Moocher, She was a red-hot hootchie-cootcher, She was the roughest, toughest frail, But Minnie had a heart as big as a whale. [Call and response scat chorus differs every time. The following is simplified:] Hi-de-hi-de-hi-di-hi! Ho-de-ho-de-ho-de-ho! He-de-he-de-he-de-he! Ho-de-ho-de-ho!
Now, she messed around with a bloke named Smoky, She loved him though he was cokie, He took her down to Chinatown, He showed her how to kick the gong around. Now, she had a dream about the king of Sweden, He gave her things that she was needin', He gave her a home built of gold and steel, A diamond car with a platinum wheel.
Now, he gave her his townhouse and his racing horses, Each meal she ate was a dozen courses; She had a million dollars worth of nickels and dimes, And she sat around and counted them all a billion times. Poor Min, poor Min, poor Min.
According Wynton Marsalis jazz is music that swings
According to Webster's dictionary, jazz is characterized by propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, varying degrees of improvisation, and often deliberate distortions of pitch and timbre
Ask 100 different people “What is jazz?” and you're likely to get 100 different answers
Started in the black ghettos of New Orleans at the end of the 19th century
Moved up river to Chicago and New York as African Americans migrated north in search of a better life in the 1920’s
There is little argument that two key elements of jazz are improvisation and swing
Scott Joplin Maple Leaf Rag
Most jazz involves a degree of improvisation
Not all improvised music can be called jazz
The Grateful Dead rarely played what was written, but they certainly are not considered a jazz band
Not all music found jazz is improvised
Duke Ellington wrote some tightly arranged jazz pieces that left no room for improvisation
While improvisation is without a doubt an integral part of jazz music, it is not an absolute
Swing is even harder to define
It is a feeling more than a concrete concept
Swing is that element that makes you move your body or want to dance
But, does jazz always swing?
No, but most would hesitate to recognize jazz if it doesn’t swing
Louis Armstrong & Duke Ellington It Don’t Mean a Thing Glenn Miller It Don’t Mean a Thing Ella Fitzgerald & Duke Ellington It Don’t Mean a Thing
The Blues is the most important musical form in Jazz and Jazz-related music
Originally blues were very loosely structured songs performed by individual singers, guitarists and banjo players.
The lyrics were usually sad and dealt with every day issues of slave life
When the blues spread from the country side to urban centers their content included more happy aspects
By 1920 three distinct blues formats had developed : the 8 bar blues, the 12 bar blues and the 16 bar blues
From these three the 12 bar blues quickly became the most popular form
It is still the most common blues form used by contemporary musicians
The 12 bar blues consists of three phrases . Each phrase is four bars long.
In its original vocal form : (AAB)
A: the 1st phrase makes a statement,
A: the 2nd phrase repeats this statement,
B: the 3rd phrase resolves or completes the statement
For example :
"From dawn to dusk I work the fields all day ....
Yeah, from dawn to dusk I work the fields all day ....
But when the sun is down I rush home to sweet Mae."
Robert Johnson Crossroad Blues Blind Willie McTell Statesboro Blues Eric Clapton Crossroads Alman Brothers Statesboro Blues
It seems there is widespread feeling that blues music is a music of the heart and gut that transcends the need for thought and technique
and that jazz music requires too much mind to allow the heart any latitude
There is no clear distinction between the two, just the feel
Most musicians lump jazz, blues, and gospel music, sometimes even ragtime, all under the same heading
Langston Hughes was one of the first of the Harlem Renaissance poets to incorporate jazz, spirituals and the blues into his writing
In the 1920’s Hughes steeped himself in the jazz culture of Harlem and began to weave the rhythm and feeling of Harlem jazz into his poetry
Perhaps the most obvious example of Hughes’ experimentation with new musical forms appears Hughes’ poem “The Weary Blues,”
Published first in 1923 in New York’s Amsterdam News and two years later in Hughes’ first collection The Weary Blues.
Unquestionably the greatest of the vaudeville blues singers
Brought the emotional intensity, personal involvement, and expression of blues singing into the jazz repertory
She made almost 200 recordings, of which her remarkable duets with Louis Armstrong are among her best
She excelled in the performance of slow blues
Bessie Smith Backwater Blues
This photo of Bessie Smith, the “Empress of the Blues” was taken in 1925 From: The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz . Ed. Barry Kernfeld. 2nd Ed. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, Inc., 2002.
A series of laws passed mostly in the south that made separate but equal facilities for whites and blacks
Made racial discrimination legal
Created completely separate white and black communities
The major clash of the 1920s had to do with race
“ Red Summer ”(Bloody Summer) -summer of 1919
In Chicago, the African American population more than doubled between 1910 and 1920
Overcrowded neighborhoods heightened tensions between blacks and whites
Eugene Williams, a black boy swimming at a beach, accidentally floated into a “white’s only” area
Whites threw stones at him, and the boy drowned
Fighting broke out
The riot spread through the city and lasted for 13 days