Late 19th Century America


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Late 19th Century America

  1. 1. How did the U.S. become such a wealthy country? The United States in the Late 19 th Century
  2. 2. Because of four factors: <ul><li>Abundance of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Development of transportation and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work of its people </li></ul><ul><li>The political system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abundance of Natural Resources <ul><li>Farm Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the richest soils in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing, furniture, paper, charcoal, maple sugar, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal (1/5 of the world’s supply) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil, natural gas (non renewable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper, gold, lead, titanium, uranium, zinc, etc… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Transportation <ul><li>Travel Over Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive river, canal and reservoir system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Over Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad technology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communication <ul><li>Telegraph and Morse Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionized economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed businesses to communicate quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed railroads to have schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predecessor to the telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Turn of the Century Inventions
  7. 7. Bell and the Telephone <ul><li>In 1874, Alexander Graham Bell had the idea of making a telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Bell worked daily for two years </li></ul><ul><li>In 1876, he successfully transmitted his voice from one room to another </li></ul><ul><li>In 1877, Bell organized the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone revolutionized communication </li></ul>
  8. 8. Edison and Electricity <ul><li>Thomas Alva Edison created a research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>In 1877, Edison invented the phonograph </li></ul><ul><li>In 1879, he perfected the light bulb and the electrical generator </li></ul><ul><li>In 1882, he began supplying electrical energy to New York City </li></ul><ul><li>He also invented or perfected the battery, dictaphone, phonograph and motion picture </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other Inventors <ul><li>Thaddeus Lowe: Ice Machine in 1870 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to refrigerated railroad cars and home refrigerators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Northrop: automatic loom in the mid 1800’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to sewing machines and textile mills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyrus Field: Transatlantic telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Transistor Radio </li></ul>
  10. 10. Innovations in Transportation
  11. 11. Post Civil-War Transportation <ul><li>In 1850, steam ships provided most of transportation needs </li></ul><ul><li>Railway lines extended all over the east and up and down the west coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks were not universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lines were short and required unloading and reloading goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There were no lines from the Midwest to the west coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private companies didn’t want to spend the money </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transcontinental Railroad <ul><li>Funded by the government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project began in 1862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave huge loans and land grants to two major companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union-Pacific built a line west out of Omaha, NE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central-Pacific built a line east out of Sacramento, CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On May 10, 1869, the two met in Promontory Summit, Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A golden spike was pounded in by Central-Pacific president </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Dignitaries and railworkers gather to drive the &quot;golden spike&quot; and join the tracks of the transcontinental railroad at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10, 1869. The Central Pacific's wood-burning locomotive, Jupiter, stands to the left, the Union Pacific's coal-burning No. 119 to the right.
  14. 15. Transcontinental Railroad <ul><li>Revolutionized business and industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster and more practical way to transport goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of national markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A model for big business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation of other industries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Investments in Rails by RR companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1850 $300 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1870 $2.5 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1865 = 35,000 miles of rail </li></ul><ul><li>1880 = 93,000 “ “ </li></ul><ul><li>1890 = 166,000 “ “ </li></ul>The Railroad Network, 1880