Late 19th Century America
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Late 19th Century America

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Late 19th Century America Late 19th Century America Presentation Transcript

  • How did the U.S. become such a wealthy country? The United States in the Late 19 th Century
  • Because of four factors:
    • Abundance of natural resources
    • Development of transportation and communication
    • Hard work of its people
    • The political system
  • Abundance of Natural Resources
    • Farm Land
      • Some of the richest soils in the world
    • Forests
      • Housing, furniture, paper, charcoal, maple sugar, etc…
      • Renewable resource
    • Minerals
      • Coal (1/5 of the world’s supply)
      • Oil, natural gas (non renewable)
      • Copper, gold, lead, titanium, uranium, zinc, etc…
  • Transportation
    • Travel Over Water
      • Extensive river, canal and reservoir system
    • Travel Over Land
      • Railroad technology
  • Communication
    • Telegraph and Morse Code
      • Revolutionized economic growth
      • Allowed businesses to communicate quickly
      • Allowed railroads to have schedules
      • Predecessor to the telephone
      • http://www.philtulga.com/morse.html
  • Turn of the Century Inventions
  • Bell and the Telephone
    • In 1874, Alexander Graham Bell had the idea of making a telephone
    • Bell worked daily for two years
    • In 1876, he successfully transmitted his voice from one room to another
    • In 1877, Bell organized the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T)
    • The telephone revolutionized communication
  • Edison and Electricity
    • Thomas Alva Edison created a research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey
    • In 1877, Edison invented the phonograph
    • In 1879, he perfected the light bulb and the electrical generator
    • In 1882, he began supplying electrical energy to New York City
    • He also invented or perfected the battery, dictaphone, phonograph and motion picture
  • Other Inventors
    • Thaddeus Lowe: Ice Machine in 1870
      • Lead to refrigerated railroad cars and home refrigerators
    • Northrop: automatic loom in the mid 1800’s
      • Lead to sewing machines and textile mills
    • Cyrus Field: Transatlantic telegraph
    • Transistor Radio
  • Innovations in Transportation
  • Post Civil-War Transportation
    • In 1850, steam ships provided most of transportation needs
    • Railway lines extended all over the east and up and down the west coast
      • Tracks were not universal
      • Most lines were short and required unloading and reloading goods
    • There were no lines from the Midwest to the west coast
      • Private companies didn’t want to spend the money
  • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Funded by the government
      • Project began in 1862
      • Gave huge loans and land grants to two major companies
      • Union-Pacific built a line west out of Omaha, NE
      • Central-Pacific built a line east out of Sacramento, CA
      • On May 10, 1869, the two met in Promontory Summit, Utah
      • A golden spike was pounded in by Central-Pacific president
  •  
  • Dignitaries and railworkers gather to drive the "golden spike" and join the tracks of the transcontinental railroad at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10, 1869. The Central Pacific's wood-burning locomotive, Jupiter, stands to the left, the Union Pacific's coal-burning No. 119 to the right.
  • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Revolutionized business and industry
      • Faster and more practical way to transport goods
      • Lower costs of production
      • Creation of national markets
      • A model for big business
      • Stimulation of other industries
  •  
    • Investments in Rails by RR companies
      • 1850 $300 million
      • 1870 $2.5 billion
    • 1865 = 35,000 miles of rail
    • 1880 = 93,000 “ “
    • 1890 = 166,000 “ “
    The Railroad Network, 1880