Industrial Labor For Web

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  • 1. Industrial Labor 1890-1910
  • 2. Industrial Boom
    • After the Civil War, the following contributed to an industrial boom in America:
      • Availability of natural resources
      • New inventions, and
      • A receptive market
  • 3. Immigration
    • The massive growth in industrialization caused a labor shortage
    • About 25 million people immigrated to the US between 1865 and 1910
    • Change in the origin of immigration
      • 1870’s and 1880’s: Most immigrants came from the British Isles and Northern Europe
      • After 1890: Most immigrants came from Southern Europe
      • 1849-1882: 300,000 Chinese Immigrants
  • 4. Why Are the Immigrants Coming?
    • US was the land of undeniable economic opportunity
    • Push Factors:
      • Rapid European population growth
      • Religious and ethnic persecution
        • Many Jews were forced out of their countries
  • 5. The Immigrants: Who Are They?
    • Mostly rural: peasants or village craftsmen
    • Poor, but not the most impoverished
    • Young
      • 67% were 30 years or younger
      • 90% were 40 years or younger
      • US got workers in their prime
  • 6. Cultural Issues
    • Ethnic Enclaves: immigrants tried to recreate life at home
      • Little Italy, China Town, etc.
    • Assimilation pressures: Americanization
      • Began immediately
      • Pressures from schools, churches, employers
      • Children were affected most through schools
    • Anti-Immigrant sentiments
      • Immigration Protection League: wanted quotas
      • American Protective Association: wanted to end immigration entirely
      • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): Congressional act that closed the US to further Chinese immigration
  • 7. Child Labor
    • Many children were drawn into the labor force
    • Factory wages were so low that children often had to work to help support their families
    • The number of children under the age of 15 who worked in industrial jobs for wages climbed from 1.5 million in 1890 to 2 million in 1910
  • 8. Why Children???
    • They worked in unskilled jobs for lower wages than adults
    • Their small hands made them more adept at handling small parts and tools
  • 9.
    • "There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work."
    • -- Lewis Hine, 1908
  • 10. Images
  • 11. Glass Blower and Mold Boy, Grafton, WV October 1908
  • 12. Boy Running "Trip Rope" in a Mine, Welch, WV September 1908
  • 13. Children Working in a Bottle Factory, Indianapolis, IN August 1908
  • 14. Nine-Year Old Newsgirl, Hartford, CT March 6, 1909
  • 15. The Noon Hour at an Indianapolis Cannery, Indianapolis IN August 1908
  • 16. Worker Picking Berries, Near Baltimore, MD June 8, 1909
  • 17. Workers Stringing Beans, Baltimore, MD June 7, 1909
  • 18. Young Boys Shucking Oysters, Apalachicola, FL January 25, 1909
  • 19. Basket Sellers, Cincinnati, OH August 22, 1908