the importance between living organisms and the environment


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the importance between living organisms and the environment

  1. 1. Interaction in an environment 1. Living things interact with each other and with non-living things in order to survive. 2. The interaction between living things and non-living things lead to balance in an ecosystem. 3. The example of interaction between living things and non-living things is shown below. (a) Aquatic plants obtain mineral salts from the soil in the pond. (b) Aquatic animals depend on aquatic plants to supply oxygen for the process of respiration. (c) Aquatic plants depend on aquatic animals to obtain carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. (d) Small fishes and tadpoles eat aquatic plants. (e) Big fishes eat small fishes. (f) Kingfisher eats fish. (g) Water lettuce, water hyacinth, lotus and land plants obtain sunlight for the process of photosynthesis. 4. Interaction between living things and non-living things is important as it maintains (a) balance in a environment ( the number and types of living thing within the environment remain the same ). (b) balance in the carbon and oxygen cycles ( oxygen and carbon dioxide content in atmosphere remain the same ).
  2. 2. (A) The various forms of interaction 1. Living things interact among themselves in order to obtain food and protection. 2. Interaction may involve animal and animal, plant and plant or animal and plant. 3. Interaction between living organisms in an ecosystem will : (a) Create equilibrium in the environment. (b) Control the size of a population in a community. 4. There are three types of interactions among organisms : (a) Predator-prey (b) Symbiosis that consists of commensalism, mutualism and parasitism. (c) Competition. 5. Predator-prey relationship. (a) The animals that hunt other animals for food are called predators, while the hunted animals are preys. (b) The predators which are carnivores have powerful jaws, sharp and strong teeth, good stereoscopic vision, sharp claws or hard and strong beaks. (c) The preys have a wide field of monoscopic vision to detect predators or are able to camouflage with their surroundings in order to escape from the predators. (d) The examples are tigers (predators) and horses (preys), eagles (predators) and rabbit (preys). (e) Diagram 4.1 shows the predator-prey relationship.
  3. 3. Symbiosis 1. In symbiosis, different organism live together in a close relationship. 2. In symbiosis, one organism always benefits by receiving food, a place to stay and shelter. The other organism may benefit, be at a disadvantage or is not affected. 3. There are three types of symbiotic relationship, i.e. commensalism. parasitism and mutualism. Commensalism 1. Commensalism is a relationship between two organisms. One organism benefits from the other. The second organism is not adversely affected by the relationship. 2. For example, the stag horn fern grows on a tree. This helps it easily obtain sunlight. The plant that it grows on is not adversely affected. 3. Examples of plants that live on trees to obtain sunlight are (a) the stag horn fern (b) the money plant (c) the pigeon orchid (d) the bird's nest fern 4. Examples of animals that live on other animals to obtain food that fall out of the host's mouth, as well as for shelter and transport are (a) barnacles that live on the shells of crabs, cockles or snails (b) remora fish that live on a shark
  4. 4. 1. Parasitism is another type of interaction between two organism. Only one organism benefits. The other organism is negatively or adversely affected. 2. A parasite is the organism that lives on or inside the other organism. The host is the organism on which the parasite lives. 3. The host is negatively affected by this interaction. The parasite may even kill the host. 4. A parasite obtains food, shelter and transport from the host. 5. For example, a tick that lives on a host feeds on the host's blood. 6. Other examples are (a) stem borers and oil palm leaves (b) tree barnacles and trees (c) aphids and mustard plants