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Learning Styles And Functions

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    • 1. Style + Function Connecting Learning Styles to Learning Strategies NACADA 2008 Chicago, Illinois
    • 2. Shawn O. Salata
      • Academic Advisor & Program Coordinator
      • University of Michigan
      • College of Engineering
      • Engineering Advising Center
      • First-year and Undeclared Engineering Students
    • 3. What We’ve Heard
      • I go to class every day
      • I go to office hours
      • I study with friends
      • I joined a study group
      • I use the practice exams
      • But I still can’t…
    • 4. What The Pros Know
      • Everyone learns differently
      • David A. Kolb (with Roger Fry) created his famous model out of four elements:
      • - concrete experience
      • - observation and reflection
      • - formation of abstract concepts
      • - testing in new situations
    • 5. Experiential Learning Circle
    • 6. What We Know
      • Everyone learns differently
      • Individuals may have different learning styles
      • - one dominant style
      • - different styles for different circumstances
      • Great resources
      • Mixed results?
    • 7. What We Want For Our Students
      • Effective and efficient use of time
      • Focus time and energies on what works
      • Avoid frustration and nasty surprises
      • Increased confidence
      • “ Master of My Domain”
    • 8. VARK
      • Developed by Neil Fleming
      • - forty years of teaching experience
      • - secondary and university level
      • Questionnaire that provides users with a profile of their learning preferences
      • These preferences describe the ways that they take-in and give-out information most readily
      • http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp
    • 9. What I Like About VARK
      • Four Categories
      • - simple and concise
      • Strategies for three steps of the learning process:
      • 1) taking in information
      • - in class or while reading
      • 2) processing information
      • - SWOT – study without tears
      • - making sense of the information you received
      • 3) delivery of information
      • - exams, homework, or writing assignments
    • 10. Visual
      • You want the whole picture
      • Holistic in your learning
      • Often swayed by the look of an object
      • Interested in color, layout and design
      • Aware of your environment
      • Probably going to draw something
    • 11. Strategies for Intake
      • Instructors with gestures and picturesque language
      • Photos, videos, slides
      • Graphs, diagrams, flowcharts
      • Note-taking – replace words with symbols or abbreviations, own code words
      • Underlining text/notes
      • - different colored highlighters
    • 12. Strategies for Output
      • Turn the words into visuals
      • Draw things, make your own diagrams
      • Recall the images you connect with the topic, question, problem
      • Write out descriptive answers
    • 13. Aural
      • Prefer to have it explained to you
      • Written words are not as valuable as those you hear
      • You will probably go and tell somebody about this
    • 14. Strategies for Intake
      • Attend classes
      • Attend discussions and tutorials
      • Discuss topics with others
      • Discuss topics with your teachers
      • Explain new ideas to other people
      • Use a tape recorder, podcasts
      • Remember the interesting examples, stories, jokes
      • Describe the slides, pictures and other visuals to somebody who was not there
      • Leave spaces in your notes for later recall and 'filling'
    • 15. Study Strategies
      • Your notes may be poor because you prefer to listen
      • - Expand your notes by talking with others and taking notes from the textbook
      • Put your summarized notes onto tapes; listen to podcasts
      • Ask others to 'hear' your understanding of a topic
      • Read your summarized notes aloud
      • Explain your notes to another 'aural' person
    • 16. Strategies for Output
      • Imagine talking with the examiner
      • Recall the conversations/discussions you had
      • Listen to your voices and write them down
      • Spend time recalling the ideas, talking them out, with someone or to yourself
      • Practice writing answers to old exam questions
      • Speak your answers aloud or inside your head
    • 17. Read/Write
      • You like textbooks, handouts, and PowerPoint because the emphasis is on words and lists
      • You believe the meanings are within the words
      • Lecture is OK but a handout is better
      • You are heading for the library to read some more
    • 18. Strategies for Intake
      • Lists
      • Headings
      • Dictionaries
      • Glossaries
      • Definitions
      • Handouts
      • Textbooks , coursepacks
      • Reviewing notes, often verbatim or in outline form
      • Instructors who use words well and have lots of information in sentences and notes
      • Essays, blue book exams, papers, take-home exams
      • Manuals (computing and laboratory)
    • 19. Study Strategies
      • Write out the words again and again
      • Read your notes (silently) again and again
      • Rewrite the ideas and principles into other words
      • Organize any diagrams, graphs into statements
      • - e.g. "The trend is..."
      • Translate reactions, actions, diagrams, and flow charts into words
      • Create multiple-choice responses from your lists of facts; distinguish the correct answer from the others
    • 20. Strategies for Output
      • Write out exam answers
      • Practice with multiple choice exams
      • Write your lists (a,b,c,d,1,2,3,4)
      • Arrange your ideas into hierarchies
      • and bullet points
    • 21. Kinesthetic
      • You want to experience the material so that you can understand it
      • Ideas are only valuable if they sound practical, real, and relevant to you
      • You learn by doing
    • 22. Strategies for Intake
      • All your senses - sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing
      • Laboratories and design classes
      • Field trips, tours, site visits
      • Collections, exhibits, samples, photographs
      • Instructors who give real-life examples
      • Applications, not theory
      • Hands-on approaches and projects
      • Trial and error
      • - engineers – design, build, test, assess
      • Recipes - solutions sets, previous exams or papers
    • 23. Let’s Have Some Fun
      • Learning Style Assessment
      • - available on VARK website
      • - can also download PDF paper format
      • How accurate?
      • Dominant style?
      • Different style for different situations?
    • 24. Brainstorm
      • What resources, strategies, and techniques are appropriate for each of the four learning styles?
      • What does a student need to utilize these resources better, based on their learning style?
      • - generate ideas for jumpstarting the student’s conversation with their instructor, tutor, or study group
      • - “What should that look like?”; “Show me.”; “Tell me more about…”
      • - come in with a drawing, chart, or graph to share
      • - use the white board in the classroom or office
    • 25. What Else Do We Want to Know?
      • Questions
      • Comments
      • Examples
      • Experiences
    • 26. Additional Resources
      • Delahoussaye, M., “The Perfect Learner: An Expert Debate on Learning Styles,” Training Vol. 39, No. 5, 2004, pp. 28-36.
      • Hall, E. and D. Moseley, “Is There a Role for Learning Styles in Personalized Education and Training?,” International Journal of Lifelong Learning , Vol. 24, No. 3, 2005, pp. 243-255.
      • Coffield, F., D. Moseley, E. Hall, and K. Ecclestone, Learning Styles and Pedagogy in Post-16 Education: A Systematic and Critical Review , The Learning and Skills Research Centre, London, 2004, http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf , accessed 25 April 2007.
      • Gabriele, G., D. Kaminski, B. Lister, and P. Théroux, “Effect Of Learning Style On Academic Performance In An Introductory Thermal-Fluids Course, Proceedings, 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition .
      • Camp, C., S. Ivey, L. Lackey, A. Lambert, J. Marchetta, and A. Robinson, “Learning Styles And Freshman Retention: What Are The Links?,” Proceedings, 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition .