Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
37096746 job-satisfaction-group-6
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

37096746 job-satisfaction-group-6

632

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
632
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURA STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN INDIA Submitted to – Dr. Bindu Gupta Submitted by – Areeb Ahmad Arif Ehsaan Ashutosh Bihani Ankush Singhal 1
  • 2. Dileep Bajaj Himaja V. Neha AgarwalExecutive Summary:We are surveying the IT industry in India, in which we are trying to find outthe level of job satisfaction of the employees working in the industry andtheir attrition rate. The IT industries which we are targeting are: InfosysTechnologies Ltd, Tata Consultancy Services, Adobe Systems, MahindraSatyam.Job satisfaction shows how content the employee is with his job. It is aperson’s evaluation of his or her job and work context. Job satisfactiondepends upon various factors like Job Content, the supervisor, careeropportunities in the company, salary, promotion and other incentives andbenefits which a employee can draw from the industry, working condition theenvironment of the company and the sub ordinates with which an employeeworks. Salary is one of the factors which affect job satisfaction, the level ofsatisfaction also depends upon the attitude of the person. People havingnegative attitude are generally not satisfied with their job irrespective oftheir promotion, working environment and salary which they are offered. Themost easiest way to express dissatisfaction is to leave the organization thisincreases the turnover rate of the employees in an organization andincreases the attrition rate. Some other ways to express dissatisfaction is to 2
  • 3. raise voice and attempts to improve the situation, passively wait forconditions to improve and the other is to neglect the situation making itworse. Job satisfaction goes hand in hand with productivity.The responses to the survey have been quantified by assigning weights to answers. Onperforming the regression analysis on the factors affecting intention to quit (and hence attrition)it was found that work compensation work quality and work environment are the three factors –work compensation, work quality and work environment that contribute the most to intention toquit (and hence to attrition).ContentsExecutive Summary:..................................................................................................2Acknowledgement......................................................................................................4Introduction: Background of the study ..................................................................................5 Definition of Job Satisfaction...........................................................................................5Objective of the Study................................................................................................6 Detailed Analysis for factors considered.................................................................6 Models of job satisfaction.....................................................................................7 Job Characteristics Model.....................................................................................8 Relationships and practical implications..............................................................9 Work Environment................................................................................................9 Compensation....................................................................................................10 Work Quality......................................................................................................11 Organizational Commitment..............................................................................12Methodology................................................................................................................14 Brief profile of the Indian IT Industry.....................................................................14 Brief of various Companies used in the Survey...................................................................15 Tata Consultancy Services (TCS)........................................................................15 Infosys................................................................................................................16 Adobe Systems Incorporated.............................................................................16 Mahindra Satyam...............................................................................................17 3
  • 4. Method of Research..............................................................................................17Methodology of Survey.............................................................................................18Survey Questions and Responses.............................................................................19Results......................................................................................................................32Recommendations....................................................................................................34References...............................................................................................................34Annexure..................................................................................................................35 Questionnaire........................................................................................................35QuestionnaireAcknowledgementNo study can be completed without the support of the employees of theorganization where it is conducted, more so when the job satisfaction andattrition rate of the employees is the primary focus. Unconditional assistanceand uninterrupted cooperation from our previous subordinates, co-workersand friends in different organization in which we have experience, are vitalfor our recent study. This study would not have taken its present shape inthe absence of openness and readiness to share their insights, judgementand views of the employees of the organization.Our special thanks to Dr. Bindu Gupta for her support and guidance atvarious stages of the project starting from its inception and preparing of thequestionnaire.This project has really been an experience which gave us the insight of thework culture in IT industry and reasons for attrition rate prevailing in theindustry. 4
  • 5. Research TeamIntroduction: Background of the study (Introduction of the variablesmeasured and analysed in the study)Definition of Job SatisfactionDifferent authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of them are taken from thebook of D.M. Pestonjee “Motivation and Job Satisfaction” which are given below:“Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from appraisal of one’sjob. An effective reaction to one’s job.” -Weiss“Job satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areasnamely:Specific job factorsIndividual characteristicsGroup relationship outside the job.” 5
  • 6. -Blum and Naylor“Job satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person hold towards the job,towards the related factors and towards the life in general.” -Glimmer“Job satisfaction is defined as “any contribution, psychological, physical, and environmentalcircumstances that cause a person truthfully say, ‘I am satisfied with my job.”“Job satisfaction is defined, as employee’s judgment of how well his job on a whole is satisfyinghis various needs.” -Mr. Smith“Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting from appraisal ofone’s job or job experiences.” -LockeObjective of the StudyThe research has been undertaken with following objectives.  To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of Informational Technology Industry in India if any.  To study the factors effecting job satisfaction in the Indian IT industry.Detailed Analysis for factors consideredJob Satisfaction 6
  • 7. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier peopleare within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same asmotivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction andperformance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Otherinfluences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement,empowerment and autonomous work position .Definition : Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from theappraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job.]Weiss(2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearlydistinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs andbehaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking intoaccount our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.Models of job satisfactionAffect TheoryEdwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfactionmodel. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancybetween what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that howmuch one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderateshow satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. 7
  • 8. Dispositional TheoryAnother well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very generaltheory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendenciestoward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notableexplanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable overtime and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levelsof job satisfaction.Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts toexplain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction anddissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Anemployee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate.Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal andorganizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p.133). Motivating factors are those aspectsof the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for exampleachievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors areconsidered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects ofthe working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and otherworking conditions.Job Characteristics ModelHackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as aframework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job 8
  • 9. satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychologicalstates (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge ofthe actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, workmotivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivatingpotential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect anemployees attitudes and behaviours.Relationships and practical implicationsJob Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and apredictor of work behaviours such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, andturnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variablesand deviant work behaviors.One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. Thiscorrelation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with theirjob and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, someresearch has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when othervariables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account.Work EnvironmentA work environment can be identified as the place that one works. i.e. -in an office building in acube, at home at the kitchen table, from a car or truck, at a construction site. All are work 9
  • 10. environments. We tend, however, to hear about "healthy work environments." This can point toother factors in the work environment, such as co-workers, air quality, ergonomic seating,management (the boss!), child care, parking, noise, and even the size of ones cube. A workenvironment doesnt require a job. It requires that work has to be done in some place. Say youneed to do homework. Where do you do it? At school in study hall? At your kitchen table? Onthe floor at a friends house? These can also be considered work environments.Creating a Positive Work EnvironmentAn effective work environment is vital to the success of small businesses and large corporationsalike. When problems remain unsolved and rules never get implemented, the result can be anunproductive staff and a stale work environment.People working together with a common denominator will accomplish tasks with greater easeand have higher expectations of themselves and their work. (success and passion)A positivework environment is critical no matter how many employees you have. It is management thatfosters the work atmosphere so they are responsible for conducting things in a way that helpsraise peoples spirits. There are four basic beliefs: • Hope • Trust • Pleasure • OpportunityCompensationWith the technological developments taking place at a higher rate, the salary packages are tooincreasing at a much higher rate. Pay packages in India have witnessed an increase of more than 10
  • 11. 14% in 2006 over last year’s salary packages. The compensation package comprises of monetaryand non-monetary benefits that includes salary, special allowances, house rent allowance, travelallowance, mobile allowance, employee stock options, club memberships, accommodations,retirement benefits and other benefits.Globalization is being considered as the cause for such salary hikes. The establishment of multi-national companies and privatization has led the Indian industry to witness higher salarypackage.With the immense competition of attracting and retaining talented human resource,compensation package is the only motivation factor available with the organizations be itIndian origin organizations or foreign-owned multinationals.With the high attrition rate organizations are increasing their salary packages to attract and retaintalented human resource. In the race, India has begged first position followed by Lithuania andChina.Work QualityWork quality is basically how an employee perceives the quality of work that he does and howfulfilling is it for the higher needs of the employee i.e. of self actualization.Factors on which work quality depends. Employee participation : How involved is he in the overall management of his work. How of responsibility and freedom he is being given. Employee participation as a workplace strategy Information sharing : How much of the information about the projects, company etc is shared with the employee. 11
  • 12. Receiving feedback on your work : does he get proper feedback for his effort, basic recognition of his work for further motivation and enhancement. Skill use : How much he is able to use his skill sets in his work. Or does his work gives no scope for using his skills to him. Opportunities for skills development: What opportunities does his work offers to him to further enhance his knowledge and improve his skill sets. Workplace training : whether he is being given proper training for the job he has to do.Organizational CommitmentOrganizational commitment is the psychological attachment of an employee to anorganization.Model of commitmentAccording to Meyer and Allens (1991) three-component model of commitment, prior researchindicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employees commitment tothe organization: Affective Commitment: AC is defined as the employees positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to". In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen drew largely on Mowday, Porter, and Steerss (1982) concept of commitment, which in turn drew on earlier work by Kanter (1968). 12
  • 13.  Continuance Commitment: The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational membership (cf. Beckers 1960 "side bet theory"),including economic costs (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) that would be incurred. The employee remains a member of the organization because he/she "has to". Normative Commitment: The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. These feelings may derive from many sources. For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a moral obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to repay the debt. It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to ones organization. The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to".TYPES Intellectual Commitment(full) Emotional Commitment (full) Financial Commitment (phased)Guidlines to enhance organizational commitment.There are five guidelines which help to enhance organizational commitment.1) Commit to people-first values: Put it in writing, hire the right-kind managers, and walk thetalk.2) Clarify and communicate your mission: Clarify the mission and ideology; make it charismatic;use value-based hiring practices; stress values-based orientation and training; build the tradition. 13
  • 14. 3) Guarantee organizational justice: Have a comprehensive grievance procedure; provide forextensive two-way communications.4) Community of practise: Build value-based homogeneitly; share and ahare alike; emphasizebarnraising, cross-utilization, and teamwork; getting people to work together.5) Support employee development: Commit to actualizing; provide first-year job challenge;enrich and empower; promote from within; provide developmental activities; provide employeesecurity without guarantees.MethodologyBrief profile of the Indian IT IndustryThe Indian Information Technology industry accounts for a 5.9% of the countrys GDP andexport earnings as of 2009, while providing employment to a significant number of its sectorworkforce. More than 2.3 million people are employed in the sector either directly or indirectly,making it one of the biggest job creators in India and a mainstay of the national economy. InMarch 2009, annual revenues from outsourcing operations in India amounted to US$50 billionand this is expected to increase to US$225 billion by 2020. The most prominent IT hub is ITcapital Bangalore. The other emerging destinationsare Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, NCR, Jaipur and Kolkata. Technically proficientimmigrants from India sought jobs in the western world from the 1950s onwards as Indiaseducation system produced more engineers than its industry could absorb. Indias growing staturein the information age enabled it to form close ties with both the United States of America andthe European Union. However, the recent global financial crisis has deeply impacted the IndianIT companies as well as global companies. As a result hiring has dropped sharply and employees 14
  • 15. are looking at different sectors like financial service, telecom or manufacturing industries, Whichare growing phenomenally over the last few years. Due to meltdown the IT industrys pace ofgrowth has dropped significantly and amount of Job dissatisfaction is also on a high.Indias IT Services industry was born in Mumbai in 1967 with the establishment of Tata Groupin partnership with Burroughs. The first software export zone SEEPZ was set up here way backin 1973, the old avatar of the modern day IT park. More than 80 percent of the countrys softwareexports happened out of SEEPZ, Mumbai in 80s.[3]Each year India produces roughly 500,000 engineers in the country, out of them only 25% to30% possessed both technical competency and English language skills, although 12% of Indiaspopulation can speak in English. India developed a number of outsourcing companiesspecializing in customer support via Internet or telephone connections. By 2009, India also has atotal of 37,160,000 telephone lines in use, a total of 506,040,000 mobile phone connections, atotal of 81,000,000 Internet users—comprising 7.0% of the countrys population, and 7,570,000people in the country have access to broadband Internet— making it the 12th largest country inthe world in terms of broadband Internet users.Brief of various Companies used in the SurveyTata Consultancy Services (TCS)Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is a Software services consulting company headquarteredin Mumbai, India. TCS is the largest provider of information technology and business processoutsourcing services in Asia. TCS has offices in 42 countries with more than 142 branches acrossthe globe. The company is listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay StockExchange of India. 15
  • 16. TCS is a flagship subsidiary of one of Indias largest and oldest conglomerate company, the TataGroup, which has interests in areas such as energy, telecommunications, financial services,manufacturing, chemicals, engineering, materials, government and healthcareTCS is one of the largest private sector employers in India with a core strength in excess of165,000 individuals. TCS has one of the lowest attrition rates in the Indian IT industry.InfosysInfosys is an information technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India.Infosys is one of the largest IT companies in India with 114,822 employees (includingsubsidiaries) as of 2010. It has offices in 30 countries and development centres in India, China,Australia, UK, Canada and Japan. It was founded on 2 July 1981 by seven entrepreneursAdobe Systems IncorporatedAdobe Systems Incorporated is an American computer software company headquartered in SanJose, California, USA. The company has historically focused upon the creation of multimediaand creativity software products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internetapplication software development.Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who establishedthe company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript pagedescription language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use inits LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution. The companyname Adobe comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind the house ofone of the companys founders. Adobe acquired its former competitor, Macromedia, inDecember 2005, which added newer software products and platforms suchas Coldfusion, Dreamweaver, Flash and Flex to its product portfolio. 16
  • 17. As of August 2009, Adobe Systems has 7,564 employees,[4] about 40% of whom work in SanJose. Adobe also has major development operations inOrlando, FL; Seattle, WA; San Francisco,CA; Orem, UT; Ottawa, Ontario; Minneapolis, MN; Newton, MA; San Luis Obispo,CA; Hamburg, Germany;Noida, India; Bangalore, India; Bucharest, Romania; Beijing, China.Mahindra SatyamMahindra Satyam (formerly known as Satyam Computer Services Ltd) was founded in 1987by B Ramalinga Raju. The company offers consulting and information technology (IT) servicesspanning various sectors, and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, theNational StockExchange (India) and Bombay Stock Exchange (India). In June 2009, the company unveiled itsnew brand identity “Mahindra Satyam” subsequent to its takeover by the Mahindra Group’s ITarm, Tech Mahindra. Mahindra Satyam offers the following ‘horizontal’ services - ExtendedEnterprise Solutions, Web Commerce Solutions, Business Intelligence Services, QualityConsulting, Strategic Outsourcing Services, Industry Native Solutions, BPO and EngineeringServicesMethod of ResearchFor our research, we have formed series of questions to measure job satisfaction and reasons forattrition rate in organizations selected. The questionnaire was mainly divided into three parts.First part is to find out the factor which best represents the employee overall job satisfaction. Thefactors used were employee recognition, pay and benefits, and job content.Second part contained the questions regarding agreeableness of employees on different factorslike Work environment, Compensation, Work quality, Organizational commitment.The above factors were considered because in general for any employee those are the mainfactors which contribute to both personal and professional satisfaction. 17
  • 18. From the employee’s rating on the agreeableness to different factors we can find out the level ofthe job satisfaction of employees in different companies and also the main reason for the attritionrate.Third part is to find out the crucial reasons for the attrition rate i.e. the main reasons foremployees to make decision to quit the job. Some of the factors mentioned in questionnaire arework quality, politics in the organization, work load, compensation, and work environment.Methodology of SurveyThe responses to the survey have been quantified by assigning weights to answers. For instance,an “Strongly agree” in response to a question gets a weight of 4, an “Agree” gets a weight of 3, adisagree gets a weight of 2 and so on. We have formulated some hypotheses pertaining to thedifferent factors that affect attrition in IT companies and then a regression analysis has been doneto find out as to which all factors contribute significantly to attrition. The dependent variable thatwe have taken is Intention to quit (the question chosen is - As soon as possible I will leave thisorganization) which may be taken as a good representation of attrition. The independentvariables (or the factors that affect intention to quit and hence attrition) are – Workcompensation, organizational commitment, work quality and work environment. The followinghypotheses have been formulated : Variables Null Hypothesis – H0 Alternate Hypothesis – H1 Work compensation Work compensation does not contribute Work compensation does contribute significantly to intention to quit significantly to intention to quit Organizational Organizational commitment does not Organizational commitment does commitment contribute significantly to intention to contribute significantly to intention quit to quit 18
  • 19. Work quality Work quality does not contribute Work quality does contribute significantly to intention to quit significantly to intention to quitWork environment Work environment does not contribute Work environment does contribute significantly to intention to quit significantly to intention to quitSurvey Questions and Responses Gender Male 81 75% Female 27 25% DIRECTIONS: Please select the level that best represents your level of overall job satisfaction for each item below. - That your views and participation are valued? 19
  • 20. Strongly 1 15 satisfied 6 % Satisfied 6 61 6 % Dissatisfied 1 12 3 % Strongly 1 12 dissatisfied 3 %DIRECTIONS: Please select the level that best represents your level of overalljob satisfaction for each item below. - That your work gives you a feeling ofpersonal accomplishment? Strongly 8 7 satisfied % Satisfied 7 71 7 % Dissatisfied 1 16 20
  • 21. 7 % Strongly 6 6 dissatisfied %DIRECTIONS: Please select the level that best represents your level of overalljob satisfaction for each item below. - That you receive appropriate recognitionfor your contributions? Strongly 2 21 satisfied 3 % Satisfied 3 33 6 % Dissatisfied 4 40 3 % Strongly 6 6 dissatisfied % 21
  • 22. DIRECTIONS: Please select the level that best represents your level of overall job satisfaction for each item below. - That your compensation matches your responsibilities? Strongly 1 12 satisfied 3 % Satisfied 5 54 8 % Dissatisfied 3 29 1 % Strongly 6 6 dissatisfied %Please rate your agreeableness on the items listed below. 22
  • 23. Work environment : - I have the resources I need to do my job well Strongly 3 32 agree 5 % Agree 6 61 6 % Disagree 3 3 % Strongly 4 4 disagree %Work environment : - I have all the information I need to do my job effectively Strongly 3 28 agree 0 % Agree 6 58 3 % Disagree 1 14 5 % Strongly 0 0 disagree % 23
  • 24. Work environment : - My workplace is safe Strongly 6 56 agree 1 % Agree 3 33 6 % Disagree 1 9 0 % Strongly 1 1 disagree %Work environment : - My work climate encourages teamwork and support Strongly 2 19 agree 0 % Agree 5 49 24
  • 25. 3 % Disagree 2 27 9 % Strongly 6 6 disagree %Compensation : - I am paid fairly for the work I do Strongly 7 6 agree % Agree 6 59 4 % Disagree 3 34 7 % Strongly 0 0 disagree % 25
  • 26. Compensation : - My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might findelsewhere Strongly 2 27 agree 9 % Agree 5 54 8 % Disagree 1 18 9 % Strongly 2 2 disagree %Compensation : - My benefits (over & above my pay) are comparable to thoseoffered by other organizations 26
  • 27. Strongly 3 28 agree 0 % Agree 5 51 5 % Disagree 1 18 9 % Strongly 4 4 disagree %Work quality : - My responsibilities and quality of work match my skills andqualifications Strongly 8 7 agree % Agree 6 64 9 % Disagree 2 25 7 % Strongly 4 4 disagree % 27
  • 28. Intention to Quit : - I think a lot about quitting my job Strongly 1 10 agree 1 % Agree 5 52 6 % Disagree 3 32 5 % Strongly 6 6 disagree % 28
  • 29. Intention to Quit : - I am actively searching for an alternative to my present job Strongly 6 6 agree % Agree 4 44 7 % Disagree 4 44 8 % Strongly 7 6 disagree %Intention to Quit : - As soon as possible I will leave this organization Strongly 2 21 agree 3 % Agree 4 39 2 % Disagree 3 31 4 % Strongly 9 8 disagree % 29
  • 30. Organizational Commitment : - If necessary, I am prepared to put myself out forthis organisation (e.g. by working long and/or unsocial hours) Strongly 2 21 agree 3 % Agree 4 45 9 % Disagree 3 33 6 % Strongly 0 0 disagree %Organizational Commitment : - If asked, I am prepared top take on moreresponsibility or tasks not in my job description 30
  • 31. Strongly 2 20 agree 2 % Agree 7 65 0 % Disagree 1 14 5 % Strongly 1 1 disagree %Organizational Commitment : - I feel that it is worthwhile to work hard for thisorganization Strongly 1 15 agree 6 % Agree 7 68 3 % Disagree 1 14 5 % Strongly 4 4 disagree % 31
  • 32. Organizational Commitment : - I am committed to this organisation Strongly 2 20 agree 2 % Agree 6 57 2 % Disagree 2 20 2 % Strongly 2 2 disagree % 32
  • 33. What are the most crucial reason(s) that will affect your decision if you choose to quit yourjob Compensation (whole pay 7 72 package) 8 % Work environment 5 51 5 % Quality of work 6 63 8 % Want to start your own 1 9% venture 0 Too much work load 5 52 6 % Too little work 4 4% Politics in the organization 5 52 6 % None, I wont quit my job 1 1% Number of daily responses 33
  • 34. ResultsOn performing the regression analysis on the factors affecting intention to quit (and henceattrition) it was found that work compensation work quality and work environment are the threefactors that contribute the most to intention to quit (and hence to attrition). Accordingly the nullhypotheses for these three factors were rejected and the final conclusion is depicted in the tablebelow.Variables p value Null Hypothesis – Alternate Hypothesis – Conclusion H0 H1Work Work compensation Work compensation Reject thecompensation 0.005620 does not contribute does contribute null 677 significantly to significantly to intention hypothesis intention to quit to quitOrganizational Organizational Organizational Do not rejectcommitment commitment does commitment does the null 0.482567 not contribute contribute significantly hypothesis 595 significantly to to intention to quit intention to quitWork quality Work quality does Work quality does Reject the 0.030610 not contribute contribute significantly null 692 significantly to to intention to quit hypothesis intention to quitWork Work environment Work environment does Reject theenvironment 1.4485E- does not contribute contribute significantly null 22 significantly to to intention to quit hypothesis intention to quit 34
  • 35. RecommendationsOrganizational turnover in the workplace has risen to epidemic proportions as have its associatedcosts. These cost include the hard, tangible costs such as severance pay, recruitment costs,orientation costs, time spent reviewing resumes and conducting interviews, as well as pre-employment drug screening to name a few. Other major costs of employee turnover are moredifficult to quantify but still have an impact on an organizations bottom line. These costs includereduced employee morale and productivity for starters.The above regression analysis shows that work compensation work quality and workenvironment are the three factors that contribute the most to intention to quit (and hence toattrition). This means that IT companies need to focus on these aspects to retain employees. Alsoout of the above mentioned factors the work environment is the most significant and hence itneeds to be emphasized more upon. In other words, retention of employees should be achievedby focusing on providing better salary, perks and other benefits and creating a more dynamicwork environment that offers new growth opportunities more frequently on a variety of levels.Besides that matching job profiles with the skill set of the employee is also very important. Thiscan be done by making improvements in the hiring process one among them being not hiringover qualified people for a job that can be done easily by a less qualified person.References • Pearson Education – Organizational Behaviour 13e by Stephen P Robbins, Stephen P Robbins and Timothy A Judge • Sample Questionnaires by Dr. Bindu Gupta, Faculty, IMT Ghaziabad. • www.wikipedia.org 35
  • 36. Annexure Questionnaire Name Current employer * Gender *• Male• Female DIRECTIONS: Please select the level that best represents your level of overall job satisfaction for each item below. * Strongly Strongly Dissatisfie Satisfied dissatisfie satisfied d d That your views and participation are valued? That your work gives you a feeling of personal accomplishment? That you receive appropriate recognition for your contributions? That your compensation matches your responsibilities? Please rate your agreeableness on the items listed below. Work environment : * 36
  • 37. Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree I have the resources I need to do my job well I have all the information I need to do my job effectively My workplace is safe My work climate encourages teamwork and supportCompensation : * Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree I am paid fairly for the work I do My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere My benefits (over & above my pay) are comparable to those offered by other organizationsWork quality : * Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree My responsibilities and quality of work match my skills and 37
  • 38. Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree qualificationsIntention to Quit : * Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree I think a lot about quitting my job I am actively searching for an alternative to my present job As soon as possible I will leave this organizationOrganizational Commitment : * Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree agree disagree If necessary, I am prepared to put myself out for this organisation (e.g. by working long and/or unsocial hours) If asked, I am prepared top take on more responsibility or tasks not in my job description I feel that it is worthwhile to work hard for this organisation I am committed to this organisation 38
  • 39. What are the most crucial reason(s) that will affect your decision if you choose to quit your job *• Compensation (whole pay package)• Work environment• Quality of work• Want to start your own venture• Too much work load• Too little work• Politics in the organization• None, I wont quit my job 39

×