Livelihoods & Inland Fish Cultivation in India 011208


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Livelihoods & Inland Fish Cultivation in India 011208

  1. 1. Livelihoods & Inland Fish Cultivation in India Jitesh Panda Vrutti Livelihoods Resource Centre 1st Dec 08
  2. 2. Demand Stream….. High domestic demand for fresh water fish – mainly Indian Major Carps Increase in per capita consumption of fish due to – Increase in purchasing power – Increase in Non Vegetarian Population – Low cost of fish – compared to meat and chicken However, compared to International level, per capita fish consumption is low in India
  3. 3. Supply Stream… Key production Clusters linked to Scientific Farming – Coastal AP; – Punjab, Hariyana, Rajasthan; – WB Mainly production in local water bodies meant for – Irrigation – Multipurpose Use Overall Gap in supply of Fish; Rising demand for local fresh water fish
  4. 4. Livelihood perspective…. Inland fishermen are – One of the poorest families in villages – Traditionally associated with catching fish – Usually, landless – Other poor families are keen on fish cultivation However, despite pro fishermen leasing policies, Local Water bodies continues to be under control of elites
  5. 5. Potential to strengthen Livelihoods…. Generally, favorable leasing policies across States Existence of Local Demand for Fish Inland fish production in India, can only increase through Extensive Fish Farming in Water bodies meant for Irrigation & multi purpose use High return on investment But Weak Extension Network of Govt. & Unavailability of Private Facilitating Agencies - CSOs
  6. 6. Policies…. Facilitates Access but not necessarily Control over resource (depends on social dynamics) Emphasizes Scientific Farming - but difficult to practice in water bodies - Not meant for Fisheries Other Schemes – related to Wage For Work & Irrigation do not take into accounts needs of fish cultivation
  7. 7. Institutions….. In GP owned water bodies - Women SHGs associated as group enterprise activity In Irrigation Deptt. owned water bodies – Usually, Fisheries Deptt organize Coop (mainly not functional) Overall absence of Community based Institutions related to Inland Fish Farming Few facilitating organizations – related to Inland Fish Farming
  8. 8. Missing Links…. Unavailability of – Community Based Institutions – Livelihoods Facilitating Institutions – Best practices related to Extensive Fish Farming in Inland Water Potential to revive/strengthen Occupation of Inland Fishing Communities by Involving them in Fish Production
  9. 9. Unique Livelihood Sector…. From Commodity point of view – Demand exists – Low Investment – Profitable From Poverty perspective – Associated with Backward Caste – Associated with Poor Families – Village based Livelihood Options – Part time & add on Livelihood Option – Can be taken up in group mode – Do not require high skill Most State Govts. already have pro poor policies
  10. 10. In absence of Pro Poor Fisheries Interventions there is Increasing dependence on Agriculture (share cropping & wage earning) & Increasing trend in Migration
  11. 11. Challenges remain to facilitate…. Common Property based Livelihood Natural Resource based Livelihood Breaking the social power dynamics in rural areas Simplifying/standardizing scientific practices for extensive systems Productivity/production while ensuring pro poor access/control to resources
  12. 12. Thank you