2: Technology - The driving force behind E-Commerce:


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2: Technology - The driving force behind E-Commerce:

  1. 1. Amity School of Business Jitendra Singh Tomar 09650512300 jitendratomar@hotmail.comjitendratomar@rediffmail.com Orator
  2. 2. Amity School of Business• Part 2: TECHNOLOGY: ThE dRiViNg fOrCe BeHiNd E-CoMmErcE
  3. 3. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web The Internet Today
  4. 4. Amity School of BusinessThe Internet Today•A “Superhighway” was initially developed as a tool for people(Originally scientists) to keep in touch with one another. It is stillthe way many people use it in today’s date.•On the personal side: • It is giving people the power they never had before and they are enjoying the tools available for their own benefit.•On the business side: • Acting as enabler of e-commerce, it is changing how companies manager their business. Closed enterprise systems are giving way to open system environments, where customers connect to the company’s Web-site and trading partners connect via an extranet and the internet. Internet
  5. 5. Amity School of BusinessThe Internet Today•It enables the user to: • Send the messages to multiple people at the same time, much like television or radio broadcasting. • It began with message communication, but now it is possible to transmit and receive computer data containing graphics, voice, photos, and even full motion vides.•The unanticipated problems?? • The appropriateness of content is always questionable. • The internet is littered with abandoned Web-sites. • Non-updated blogs and profiles. • Neglected sites – abandoned sites when business fails or simple boredom lead to Web-site neglect. Internet
  6. 6. Amity School of BusinessThe Internet Today•Why neglected sites got built? • New e-business that begin with Web sites, but are abandoned on the Internet when the business fails. • As long as business keeps pouring in, less time, less focus and less motivation to update the Web site and when orders begin to shrink, it is often too late to save the Web site from major overhaul. • Limited-time web sites for political, social, or special events die quickly after the event.•What services Internet offers? • E-mail, file transfer, interest group membership, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, access to remote computers, and quick & easy transmission of information. Internet
  7. 7. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web Beginning Of The Internet
  8. 8. Amity School of BusinessBeginning of the Internet.•The internet is the infrastructure that links thousands of networkstogether.•No one knows exactly how many computers are connected tothe Internet.•Who is In-Charge of Internet? • No one. No governing body is in control. The internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private organizations.•How & why it got formulated? • The initial goal was to design a network that would maintain the safe transition of data between military computers at select sites through redundant communication routes Internet
  9. 9. Amity School of BusinessBeginning of the Internet. • The built-in redundancy meant that in case of war, military data transfer would continue uninterrupted. • It also meant that no single site would be the vulnerable one. • In 1964, two nodes (computers) were connected to a network on ARPAnet, which was the sponsor of the research. This was the beginning of what we now call the Internet. • The initial goal was to design a network that would maintain the safe transition of data between military computers at select sites through redundant communication routes Internet
  10. 10. Amity School of BusinessBeginning of the Internet. • ARPAnet was decommissioned in 1969. • In 1984, it split into two interconnected networks. The military part was named MILNET. The educational part, which kept the name ARPAnet, became known as the Internet. • At first, Internet traffic was government related & government subsidized and no ordinary person or company could use its services. • Things changed in April 1994, when the US government relinquished control of the Internet to independent governing bodies, which relaxed entry for almost everyone. Internet
  11. 11. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web The General Terms
  12. 12. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web•An organization of files designed around a group of servers onthe Internet programmed to handle requests from browsersoftware on users’ PCs.Hyper Text•Any text that contains links to other documents.Hyper Link•Connects current document to another location in the samedocument or to another document on the same host computer.TCP/IP•A set of protocols or rules that provide the basis for operatingthe internet. The General Terms
  13. 13. Amity School of BusinessHTTP•Hyper Text Transfer Protocol makes possible transmission ofhypertext over networks. HTTP has been designated as theprotocol of the WWW.VoIP•Voice over Internet Protocol makes it possible to place atelephone call over the Web.Browser•A software application that allows users to navigate the Web.Spider•A program that roams the Web from link to link identifying andscanning pages. The index contains a copy of each Web pagegathered by the spider. The General Terms
  14. 14. Amity School of BusinessURL (Uniform Resource Locator)•A name that represents the address of a specific Web site.ISP (Internet Service Provider)•A company that links users to the internet for a fee. They are likethe entrance ramp to the internet.Telnet•A protocol that allow users to log on to a computer and accessfiles from a remote location.FTP•A standard protocol that allows you to copy files fromcomputer to computer.BBS (Bulletin Board System)•A computer-based meeting and announcement system thatallows local people to exchange information free of charge. The General Terms
  15. 15. Amity School of BusinessFirst Generation Search Engine•A search engine that returns results in schematic order,constructing a term relevancy rating of each hit and presentingsearch results in this order, also called “on the page” ranking.Second Generation Search Engine•A search engine that organizes search results by peer ranking,concept, domain, or site rather than by relevancy. It is alsocalled “off the page” information. The General Terms
  16. 16. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web Some Effective Tips – Web Search
  17. 17. Amity School of BusinessThe right way to search•Evaluate everything on the Internet for its appropriateness forresearch use.•Try out a handful of sites when researching a topic on theInternet. Do not rely only on one site or one type of site.•When searching for a proper name, capitalize the first letter oreach word.•When searching for several names that are linked together, usea comma to separate them (eg: Dr. Pratibha Patil, President).•Use quotation marks when doing a phrase search (eg:“Congressional E-Mail Address”), else engine will search for alldocuments having these words separately or with somecombination. Searching Tips
  18. 18. Amity School of BusinessThe right way to search•Use hyphens when searching for words that must appear withinone word of each other (eg: cable-network).•Use plus sign to find two or more words that must be in thedocuments together (eg: bus schedule+delhi).•For multiple-term search, decide on the logical relationshipbetween them. (eg: +Amartya+Economist will leave searchengine search for relationship between Amartya and Economywith AND logic to apply).•For searching an image, place colon between the word imageand the image topic name (eg: image: Microsoft).•Use of asterisk will find all combinations of a word or wordfragment (eg: edu*). This will yield pages containing education,educator, and the like. Searching Tips
  19. 19. Amity School of BusinessThe right way to search•To find URLs, use url: and the address fragment (url: amity). Thiswill match pages with the word amity in the URL.•Work with different search engines, as no two search engineswork from the same index. Searching Tips
  20. 20. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web Merchandising - Facts to Remember
  21. 21. Amity School of BusinessAn online merchant should know some basic facts:•People look up Websites with Search Engines. • Out of three methods i.e. using URL, Bookmarking the sites and Using Search Engines, the last method is the most commonly used. • A frequently visited website is one that appears on several search engines.•People usually use bookmarks to visit their favorite site. • While advertising a website, encourage users or customers to bookmark the site. It is easy, quick and the most convenient way of visiting a website.•A website must be quick and current. • Users simply click away if the information they seek is not displayed on the screen within few seconds. Facts to Remember
  22. 22. Amity School of BusinessAn online merchant should know some basic facts: • Slow speed, broken links and difficulty in finding a given site do not promote loyalty.•A web site should address the privacy & navigational issues. • Censorship is the leading concern of Internet users, followed by privacy concerns. • Ease of navigation is an added concern for Web traffic. • For commercial Website to build customer loyalty, it is important to protect user information and ensure ease of use of the Website at all times, regardless of the amount of traffic.•The “bottleneck” problem. • Connecting to DSL or high speed line would help, but as more and more people go that route, congestion is bound to happen. Facts to Remember
  23. 23. Amity School of BusinessAn online merchant should know some basic facts:•People are reluctant to pay to surf a Website. • Very few sites that began to charge for visits have stayed in business. • On the Web, about the only exceptions to the no-pay rule are specialized services such as online stock services and the likes. Facts to Remember
  24. 24. Amity School of BusinessWorld Wide Web Search Engine Optimization
  25. 25. Amity School of BusinessSearch Engine Optimization:SEO is a way of trying to increase the number of visitors to theWebsite by ranking high in the search results displayed by asearch engine.The closer the Website is to the top of the list, the greater thechance of attracting more visitors.•Optimization via Hyperlinks. • Search engines usually figure out that linking anything on your Web page is likely to be closely related to the content of the page. • This indicates to include the most important keyword phrases in the hyperlink itself and surrounding text for optimization of the Website. Search Engine Optimization
  26. 26. Amity School of Business• Optimization via Keywords and Meta-tags. • Good meta-tags are very much needed to achieve good listings in the search engine. Meta-tags are always part of a well optimized page. • In addition to meta-tags, heading tags and title tags are two more important factors to consider when optimizing the Webpage. • Inclusion of most important keyword phrases in heading tags, title tags and meta-tags allows Search engines to effectively index the Website. Caution • Make sure not to copy competitions keyword phrases, as they might not fit right, and that would be in violation of copyright. Search Engine Optimization
  27. 27. Amity School of BusinessBe careful in optimization:While optimizing the website, one thing to stay away from is“spamming” the search engines.Since traffic to your Website comes through search engines, theyare the last ones to be antagonized.Here are things that search engines consider spamming;•Listing keywords anywhere other than in your keyword tags.•Using the same font color as the page’s background color orhaving a white-link.•Submitting identical pages.•Using multiple instances of the same tag, such as using morethat one title tag.•Submitting the same page to any search engine more thanonce within 24 hours. Search Engine Optimization
  28. 28. Amity School of BusinessInternet Architecture The Network
  29. 29. Amity School of BusinessWhat is a Network? It is a connection between at least two computers for the purpose of sharing resources. All networks are based on the concept of sharing.Types of Networks Internet architecture is addressed by two kinds of networks: •Workgroup & Client-Server Architecture. The latter type is what is expected in every e-merchant’s technology infrastructure. Workgroup is a simplified version of a network for small business for in-house purposes. Knowing this arrangement makes it easier to appreciate client/server architecture as backbone for e-commerce. The Network
  30. 30. Amity School of BusinessWorkgroup•Computers in workgroup are linked together as equals, with nocentralized server or control.•Computers can share their resources with other computers onthe same network as and when required.•Users are network administrators in that they control access tothe resources that reside on their own computer.•This arrangement could lead to chaos and security problem.•This setup connects fewer than 10 computers.•With each machine behaving like a server, it is difficult for usersto know what information is on which computer.•On the flip side, low cost and ease of installation is one of thebiggest advantages. The Network
  31. 31. Amity School of BusinessPros and Cons of Workgroup•Benefits • Users can control their own shared resources. • Easy to install. • Easy to configure the system. • Inexpensive to purchase and operate. • No dependence on a dedicated server. • Ideal for small business. • No need for a full-time network administrator. The Network
  32. 32. Amity School of BusinessPros and Cons of Workgroup•Drawbacks • Network security is applied to one computer at a time. • Every time a computer in the network is accessed, performance suffers. • Backup is performed on each machine separately to protect shared resources. • Users have to use a separate password on each computer in the network. • No centralized setup to locate, manage, or control access to data. The Network
  33. 33. Amity School of BusinessClient-Server Networks•A server is simply a special purpose computer or specializedhardware and software designed for one function – to address aclient’s requests.•A client is any computer or workstation connected to the serverwithin a network.•One of the main advantages of client/server networks iscentralized control over network resources.•A client/server system is a multi-user environment. More thanone authorized user can access any program or application thatresides on the server.•Servers are usually fast computers with physical and logicalsecurity capable of controlling who accesses what resources.•All programs or applications reside on the server. The Network
  34. 34. Amity School of BusinessPros and Cons of Client/Server network•Benefits • Ideal for more than 10 users • Centralized security access and control • Simpler network administration and control than workgroup network. • Users remember only one password. • Ideal when user computers are not in close proximity. • More scalable (upgradable) than workgroup network. The Network
  35. 35. Amity School of BusinessPros and Cons of Client/Server network•Drawbacks • Network failure means clients are almost helpless. • Specialized staff needed to manage the specialized hardware and software. • Higher costs than workgroup network because of specialized hardware and software architecture. The Network
  36. 36. Amity School of BusinessTypes of Client/Server network•Two Tier Architecture • When an organization has small network where users can interact concurrently, they are suggested to have Two Tier Architecture. • It requires minimal operator intervention and is used frequently in non-complex system • This model has two main components: • User System Interface • Operating Platform (OS, DBMS, Internet Service) • The operating platform has limited process management capabilities. • Primary limitations associated with this model are: • When the number of users exceeds, performance begins to deteriorate. • Limited processing management restricts flexibility. The Network
  37. 37. Amity School of BusinessTypes of Client/Server network•Three Tier Architecture • This model has three main components: • User system Interface, • Middleware (OS) • Specialized Platform (DBMS, Internet Service) • The middle tier manages control and integrity. It provides improved access to resources, thus enhancing scalability and flexibility even when more system components are added. • It can also perform queuing, application execution and platform staging. The Network
  38. 38. Amity School of BusinessInternet Architecture IP Address
  39. 39. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses•It is a numerical label assigned to a device participating in acomputer network.•This number identifies each host from every other host.•For transmitting a message a source host needs to know onlythe official IP address of the destination host regardless oflocation.•The version of IP address used currently is IPv4, consisting of 32bits and is capable of connecting 2 32 = 4294967296 hosts on thenetwork.•IPv4 contains four 8-bit blocks called octets. Each octet rangefrom 0 to 255, having 256 values in all.•Eg: IP Address
  40. 40. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses – Network and Sizes•A 32 bit IP address by itself does not tell anything about the sizeof its network, subnet, or host part. To detail this, networks areclassified as below: • Class A • Class B • Class C • Class D • Class E IP Address
  41. 41. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses – Network and Sizes•A 32 bit IP address by itself does not tell anything about the sizeof its network, subnet, or host part. To detail this, networks areclassified as below: • Class A Beginning Bits : 0 • Class B Bits in Remainder of Network Part : 07 • Class C Bits in Local Part : 24 • Class D Maximum number of Networks : 128 Maximum number of Hosts : 16777216 • Class E IP Address
  42. 42. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses – Network and Sizes•A 32 bit IP address by itself does not tell anything about the sizeof its network, subnet, or host part. To detail this, networks areclassified as below: • Class A Beginning Bits : 10 • Class B Bits in Remainder of Network Part : 14 • Class C Bits in Local Part : 16 • Class D Maximum number of Networks : 16384 Maximum number of Hosts : 65536 • Class E IP Address
  43. 43. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses – Network and Sizes•A 32 bit IP address by itself does not tell anything about the sizeof its network, subnet, or host part. To detail this, networks areclassified as below: • Class A Beginning Bits : 110 • Class B Bits in Remainder of Network Part : 21 • Class C Bits in Local Part : 08 • Class D Maximum number of Networks : 2097152 Maximum number of Hosts : 254 • Class E IP Address
  44. 44. Amity School of BusinessIP Addresses – Network and Sizes•A 32 bit IP address by itself does not tell anything about the sizeof its network, subnet, or host part. To detail this, networks areclassified as below: Class D addresses begin with 1110 and are used for • Class A multicasting. Unlike unicast, where the packet goes • Class B to only one host IP address, IP multicasting means the packet is broadcast to all the hosts on that • Class C subnet. • Class D • Class E Class E addresses are kept reserved with the internet society. IP Address
  45. 45. Amity School of BusinessInternet Architecture Network Hardware
  46. 46. Amity School of BusinessCable Types•Twisted Pair • Shielded Twisted Pair • Unshielded Twisted Pair•Co-axial Cable•Fiber-Optic Cable•Wireless Data Transmission • Radio Transmission • Microwave Transmission • Infrared Wave Transmission Network Hardware
  47. 47. Amity School of BusinessNetwork components•Network Interface Card•Modem•Hub•Switch•Router•Bridge•Gateway Network Hardware
  48. 48. Amity School of BusinessInternet Architecture Design Consideration
  49. 49. Amity School of BusinessDesigning a Network - Factors to be kept in mindWhen designing a network, factors to be kept in mind:•Location • Where will the network be installed? • How convenient is the location? • How easy is it to install the cabling, allocation of space and similar issues?•Capacity • What is the optimum traffic capacity of the network? • How efficient is its performance at that capacity? Design Consideration
  50. 50. Amity School of BusinessDesigning a Network - Factors to be kept in mindWhen designing a network, factors to be kept in mind:•Distance limitation • How far is the farthest PC to the server? • How does distance affect network performance during peak hours? • How does distance compromise security?•Cost • What is the estimated cost of the proposed network installation? • Is the cost within the budget? • What are the hidden costs? • Given the cost, how to justify the return on investment? Design Consideration
  51. 51. Amity School of BusinessDesigning a Network - Factors to be kept in mindWhen designing a network, factors to be kept in mind:•Potential Growth • How easily and how well can the network be expanded to meet the growing demands of the organization? • What is the expected cost of such growth?•Security • How secure is the proposed network? • What security measures should be incorporated? • Who will be in charge of monitoring security? Design Consideration
  52. 52. Amity School of BusinessNetwork Architecture – Hardware and Software ConsiderationThe factors considered when selecting network architecture:•Hardware Requirement • Hardware includes server, workstations, printers, switches, routers, minicomputers, and backup systems. • Amount of usage is also important.•Software requirements • These requirements depend largely on the profile of the company. • The software should meet immediate needs.•Disaster recovery and fault-tolerance requirements. • The system should have build in features that allows it to recover from failure. • Strategic use of RAID, PDC & ADCs, Network Architecture, 3 Tier CS Architecture. Design Consideration
  53. 53. Amity School of BusinessHosting your Web Site Internet Service Provider
  54. 54. Amity School of BusinessInternet Service Provider – What’s That?•It is a specialized company that connects customers with PCsand browsers to the Internet.•For a fee, the ISP gives a software package, a user name, apassword, and an access phone number to the user.•ISP helps the users to connect to the Internet Backbone.•Today ISPs also offers Virtual Hosting / Virtual Domain as well.•This allows the user to have its own Domain Name (www.yourcompany.com) rather than using ISPs domain namewith a subdirectory (www.ISPdomain/userpage) designatinguser’s site.•Major companies design and maintain their own Web sites, butmore that one third of medium-size to small organizations use ISPsVirtual Domain Services. Internet Service Provider
  55. 55. Amity School of BusinessTypes of Service Provider.There are 5 types of Service Providers.•The Internet Service Provider (ISP) • An ISP provides an interface between the public phone system and Internet digital phone lines. Which carry packets instead of voice conversations. • They are simply a specialized business that offers Internet Access to the users.•The Application Service Provider (ASP) • ASP are the application renter who offers packaged software for lease online and generally focuses on high- end applications like databases and ERP. • ASP allow small to midsize business to choose from menu of applications without having to invest in the staffing or infrastructure to support them. Internet Service Provider
  56. 56. Amity School of BusinessTypes of Service Provider.There are 5 types of Service Providers.•The Wireless Application Service Provider (WASP) • It is a company that offers untethered applications. • Hosting, developing and managing applications is similar to that of an ASP. • WASPs are specialized in integration of the Web and Wireless networks. • They deal with a wide range of H/W, mobile devices & wireless network protocols making the job more complex.•The Business Service Provider (BSP). • It is an Internet service developer that rents only its own proprietary applications via the Web. Generally, the software is specific in function. Internet Service Provider
  57. 57. Amity School of BusinessTypes of Service Provider.There are 5 types of Service Providers.•The Wholesale Service Provider (WSP) • The category of service provider that packages a selection of BSP applications for distribution online. • These service providers generally cater to small to midsize businesses and can be important addition to large IT operations. • They fall into one of three categories: • The large wholesale access providers, • The smaller Internet Backbone providers, • And the local ISPs. Internet Service Provider
  58. 58. Amity School of BusinessHosting your Web Site Choosing an ISP
  59. 59. Amity School of BusinessWhat to Consider?There are special criteria to consider for implementing aselection process.•Size of the Pipeline or Bandwidth. • High speed T1 (1.5 Mbps) and T3 (45 Mbps) lines connect the ISP to the Internet backbone. • Smaller ISPs often have ISDN connections or fractional T1 connections hampering the high level traffic.•Powerful Hardware. • Powerful Web servers, communication gears, fault-tolerant architecture, ensure smooth running of Website.•Security and Stability. • ISPs are specialist in Web hosting. With high uptime, latest software and expert installation , they ensure security and stability. Choosing an ISP
  60. 60. Amity School of BusinessWhat to Consider?•Customer Service and Technical Support. • 24x7x365 is the basic requirement in today’s date. • Upgrades, customization, security and scalability are the high end support to be addressed. • Critical problems solution should be given by Service Provider with in reasonable or stipulated time.•Backup • The scheduled backup support is of keen interest as in case of failure, the crucial business information remains intact. • Also, recovering a website ASAP is one major factor so as to remain in business in case there is some kind of failure. Choosing an ISP
  61. 61. Amity School of BusinessWhat to Consider?•E-Mail Capabilities. • An ISP allows a certain number of e-mail addresses per account. • Business might want to have multiple e-mail boxes at the Web hosting ISP which gives flexibility and independence.•Platform Extension • The feature allows the user to directly make changes to the website, since the ISP supports the Development Platform (like Front-Page) extensions.•Database Access. • For the dynamic Websites, it is necessary that the ISP supports the DB platform used as back-end with the Website. • Also, ISP should have efficient DB administration Capacity. Choosing an ISP
  62. 62. Amity School of BusinessHosting your Web Site Registering a Domain Name
  63. 63. Amity School of BusinessWhat is a Domain Name?•On Internet, a domain name is a unique Internet Address torepresent a Web site.•A Domain Name Service (DNS) Server translates between thenumeric Internet Protocol (IP) address used by the computer andthe English-like name identifier that users understand.Selecting a Domain Name•Choosing a domain name is a major step for any individual ororganization.• When choosing a name, it is important to consider the purpose of a domain name, which is to provide an easy way to reach your web site. Registering a Domain Name
  64. 64. Amity School of BusinessSelecting a Domain Name• The best domains have the following characteristics: • Short - People dont like to type. A short domain name is easier to type, read, and remember. • Meaningful – A Short domain is nothing without meaning. The domain should reflect the name of the company and nature of business so that users can correlate address with the company. • Clear – Clarity is important when selecting a domain name. Avoid a name that is difficult to spell or pronounce. Registering a Domain Name
  65. 65. Amity School of BusinessRegistering a Domain Name• Once domain name is selected, it should be registered to be active. It could be registered with Domain name registration companies. These companies provide interfaces to search for available domain names, and they offer a variety of domain name extensions that can be registered at the same time.• The pitfalls to keep in mind while registering a domain name: • Overcharging • ISPs in general have their own algorithm of fees, including setup fees, transfer fees, monthly fees, special services fees and so on. • Shop around for a reliable ISP with experience and reputation for a quality technical support at a reasonable charge. Registering a Domain Name
  66. 66. Amity School of BusinessRegistering a Domain Name• The pitfalls to keep in mind while registering a domain name: • Domain Name Status • Make sure the domain name is registered in your name rather than in the name of the ISP. • Make sure you own the exclusive right to your domain name. • Contractual Language • Before committing, read the agreement the ISP expects you to sign before the Website is formally and legally on the Internet. • Reputation of ISP • Reputation of ISP is quite important and should be checked prior to signing the contract as changing ISP is neither pleasant nor convenient. Registering a Domain Name
  67. 67. Amity School of BusinessImplications for Management E-Commerce
  68. 68. Amity School of BusinessWhat companies should focus on?•The growing of Online commerce will change business andconsumer relationships, shift value chains, and createopportunities for healthy competition.•Online applications are becoming strategic parts of acompany’s technology base, rather than tools for tacticalproductivity gains.•Online business, Online payments, online advertising, are timebased and location based values enhanced by onlineapplication.•With all these benefits and potential, though, serious problemsneed to be addressed. The strategies of the companies mayannoy users rather than accommodating consumers withunwanted information, especially at the wrong time.•Customers may even switch away from the companies. Management Implications
  69. 69. Amity School of BusinessWhat companies should focus on?•The following issues must be addressed by the management: • Consider the cultural and location based issues – These arise from introducing the online environment. A company with geographical locations must establish local expertise in each core location to address local demands or problems unique to business. • Services advantageous to the business – the company has to offer services that will be strategically advantageous to the business. Also as business increase, company is bound to face increase in customer demand & to use technology for competitive advantage. • Experiment with new technology and view the whole effort as an investment in tomorrow’s way of doing business. It will also generate awareness about effective use of technology. Management Implications
  70. 70. Amity School of BusinessImplications for Management Networks
  71. 71. Amity School of BusinessWhat companies should focus on?The main implication of networking for management is that firmsneed to have a work environment that technical people findconducive for long-term employment and one that promotes acareer path for qualified employees.Management should keep in mind the following factors as toimprove the culture:•Constructive and timely feedback: • One of the most important issues in managing and motivating technical people is consistent and constructive feedback on a day -to-day basis. This is especially true for new hires. Feedback is also important in helping personnel develop new skills and advance to more challenging positions. Management Implications
  72. 72. Amity School of BusinessWhat companies should focus on?•Recognition and Appreciation of good, value added work. • It is human nature that recognition is a rein-forcer, especially when it is made in a timely manner. A simple thanks from the hearts is what it often takes to restart a project that has been going nowhere.•Championing Staff Causes • A champion in IT is someone who uses every opportunity to promote a project with those on higher organizational levels. • Sometimes top management reluctantly approves a project , not knowing how it is going to turn out. • An IT manger can keep top managers interested and rein- force the progress made by example, by scenarios, or by online displays of completed work. Management Implications
  73. 73. Amity School of BusinessWhat companies should focus on?•Support Employee Career Goals. • Technical employees should not only have opportunities to undergo training and improve their skills, but they should bale to utilize those skills . Technical people often are motivated more by opportunities for creativity than by money alone.•Match Industry Salary Standards for In-House Personnel • Regardless of how well IT personnel are treated, it is still important to provide competitive salaries and attractive benefits to discourage defection to the competition. Organization now offer sign-up bonuses, stock options, pleasant office surroundings flextime, and other opportunities to ensure job satisfaction and loyalty. It takes sensitivity, communication skills, timely feedback, and a genuine interest in people and their careers to make a department or a corporation successful. Management Implications
  74. 74. Amity School of BusinessInformation Exchange Electronic Data Interchange
  75. 75. Amity School of BusinessWhat is EDI?•Most B2B traffic is handles by a communication tool calledElectronic Data Interchange (EDI).•EDI allows one computer system to communicate with anothercomputer system using a standardized electronic form.•It is computer to computer transfer of business informationamong businesses that use a specific standard format.•The information exchanged could be transaction data, requestsfor quotes, order acknowledgments, shipping status or scheduleand the like.•EDI incorporates more than 3/4th of the total businessinformation exchanged between business houses in today’sdate. EDI
  76. 76. Amity School of BusinessAdvantages of EDI•Cost reduction and time saving • By eliminating unnecessary paperwork, information flow becomes more efficient. • Eg: The seller’s EDI computer sending acknowledgments and electronic billing eliminates the paper invoice.•Improved B2B problem resolution. • EDI responds quickly to business inquiries and transfer of documents with an automatic audit trail to ensure accuracy and consistency. • Implementation of EDI and its various applications results in improvement in information sharing and cooperation between trading partners. EDI
  77. 77. Amity School of BusinessAdvantages of EDI•Accuracy with Integrity. • Eliminating data entry means improved accuracy in the way data is processed. This contributes to the integrity and reliability of the business process. • The receipt of more accurate and complete business transactions through EDI improves information processing in the affected application.•Uses of EDI: • Shortening order time. • Cost cutting. • Elimination of errors. • Fast response. • Accurate invoicing. • EDI Payments. EDI
  78. 78. Amity School of BusinessDrawbacks of EDI•Expensive • EDI has yet to catch on as the perfect solution to information flow or for doing business. EDI is expensive and requires a heavy investment to launch and maintain the technology. • It requires VAN networking to operate at peak efficiency. Only high-volume, large trading partners can afford this investment.•Non-User Friendly • It is not easy to learn, use and implement.•P2P • EDI is point to point. Every contact requires special hardware and software. EDI
  79. 79. Amity School of BusinessMobile Commerce
  80. 80. Amity School of BusinessWhat is M-Commerce?•Business Transactions and Payments conducted in a non PCbased environment.•M-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and servicesthrough wireless handheld devices.•M-Commerce is the process of paying for services using amobile phone or personal organizer.•M-Commerce is the use of mobile devices to communicate,inform transact and entertain using text and data via aconnection to public and private networks.•M-commerce is also known as next-generation e-commerce, m-commerce enables users to use the Internet without needing tofind a place to plug in.•The emerging technology behind m-commerce is based on theWIRELESS APPICATION PROTOCOL(WAP) . M-Commerce
  81. 81. Amity School of BusinessAdvantages:•The benefit of M-Commerce include customer satisfaction, costsavings and new business opportunities.•Use M-Commerce anytime, anywhere with the light-weighteddevice.•Single owner has control over data whereas the mobile devicecan be highly personalized.•M-Commerce can bring the buyer and seller together moreeasily and facilitate greater profits and a closer customerrelationship. M-Commerce
  82. 82. Amity School of BusinessDisadvantages:•Expensive cost•Small screens won’t have clear display.•Web sited not fully compatible with WAP.•Slow speed.•Limited for longer message.•It hard way to fill the data.•Security is not protected. M-Commerce
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  84. 84. Amity School of Business Pros and Cons of Mobile Commerce Desktop / PC Mobile Phone / PDA Greater Processing, multimedia  Online product browsing  Location based advertising and display capabilities of PCs  Personalized Advertising  Greater Convenience Greater presentation facilities  Convenience for a  Capture of buying impulses makes the PC more applicable technologically aware user.  Alternative payment mechanism to larger purchases  Choice of many online stores e.g. Phone Bill for a wide range of items  Supports new mobile services discount Notifications. E-Commerce M-Commerce E-Commerce M-Commerce  Dialup hassles  Distrust of technology, resistance  Smaller screen size can degrade  Less possibility of impulse to change user experience spending  Fears about security online  Small or immature input technologies transactions  Market may be less open than  Bad design of many user interfaces e-commerce market  Slow connections if broadband  Tariffs are relatively high access not available 84