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Tissue, Different types of tissue, Epithelial tissue, Cardiac tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous tissue

Tissue, Different types of tissue, Epithelial tissue, Cardiac tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous tissue

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  • 1. 9/2/2012 By- Jitendra Bhangale Assistant Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad 1 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cells are specialized for particular functions Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types Epithelium Connective tissue Nervous tissue Muscle 2 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 1
  • 2. 9/2/2012 Found in different areas Body coverings Body linings Glandular tissue Functions Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion 3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Cells fit closely together Tissue layer always has one free surface The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane Avascular (have no blood supply) Regenerate easily if well nourished 4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 2
  • 3. 9/2/2012 Number of cell layers Simple – one layer Stratified – more than one layer 5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Shape of cells Squamous – flattened Cuboidal – cube- shaped Columnar – column- like 6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 3
  • 4. 9/2/2012 Simple squamous Single layer of flat cells Usually forms membranes Lines body cavities Lines lungs and capillaries 7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Simple cuboidal Single layer of cube- like cells Common in glands and their ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules Covers the ovaries 8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 4
  • 5. 9/2/2012 Simple columnar Single layer of tall cells Often includes goblet cells, which produce mucus Lines digestive tract 9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Pseudostratified Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others Often looks like a double cell layer Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract May function in absorption or secretion 10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 5
  • 6. 9/2/2012 Stratified squamous Cells at the free edge are flattened Found as a protective covering where friction is common Locations Skin Mouth Esophagus 11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Stratified cuboidal Two layers of cuboidal cells Stratified columnar Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape Stratified cuboidal and columnar Rare in human body Found mainly in ducts of large glands 12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 6
  • 7. 9/2/2012 Transitional epithelium Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching Lines organs of the urinary system 13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Gland – one or more cells that secretes a particular product Two major gland types Endocrine gland Ductless Secretions are hormones Exocrine gland Empty through ducts to the epithelial surface Include sweat and oil glands 14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 7
  • 8. 9/2/2012 Found everywhere in the body Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues Functions Binds body tissues together Supports the body Provides protection 15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Variations in blood supply Some tissue types are well vascularized Some have poor blood supply or are avascular Extracellular matrix Non-living material that surrounds living cells 16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 8
  • 9. 9/2/2012 Two main elements Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules Fibers Produced by the cells Three types Collagen fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers 17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Bone (osseous tissue) Composed of: Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) Hard matrix of calcium salts Large numbers of collagen fibers Used to protect and support the body 18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 9
  • 10. 9/2/2012 Hyaline cartilage Most common cartilage Composed of: Abundant collagen fibers Rubbery matrix Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage 19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Elastic cartilage Provides elasticity Example: supports the external ear 20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 10
  • 11. 9/2/2012 Fibrocartilage Highly compressible Example: forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae 21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Dense connective tissue Main matrix element is collagen fibers Cells are fibroblasts Examples Tendon – attach muscle to bone Ligaments – attach bone to bone © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 22By J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 11
  • 12. 9/2/2012 Areolar connective tissue Most widely distributed connective tissue Soft, pliable tissue Contains all fiber types Can soak up excess fluid 23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Adipose tissue Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate Many cells contain large lipid deposits Functions Insulates the body Protects some organs Serves as a site of fuel storage 24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 12
  • 13. 9/2/2012 Reticular connective tissue Delicate network of interwoven fibers Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Spleen Bone marrow 25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Blood Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix Fibers are visible during clotting Functions as the transport vehicle for materials 26 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 13
  • 14. 9/2/2012  Function is to produce movement  Three types Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle 27 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Skeletal muscle Can be controlled voluntarily Cells attach to connective tissue Cells are striated Cells have more than one nucleus 28 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 14
  • 15. 9/2/2012 Cardiac muscle Found only in the heart Function is to pump blood (involuntary) Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks Cells are striated One nucleus per cell 29 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Smooth muscle Involuntary muscle Surrounds hollow organs Attached to other smooth muscle cells No visible striations One nucleus per cell 30 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 15
  • 16. 9/2/2012 Neurons and nerve support cells Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body Irritability Conductivity 31 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Regeneration Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells Fibrosis Repair by dense fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue) Determination of method Type of tissue damaged Severity of the injury 32 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 16
  • 17. 9/2/2012 Capillaries become very permeable Introduce clotting proteins Wall off injured area Formation of granulation tissue Regeneration of surface epithelium 33 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Tissues that regenerate easily Epithelial tissue Fibrous connective tissue and bone Tissues that regenerate poorly Skeletal muscle Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue Cardiac muscle Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord 34 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 17
  • 18. 9/2/2012 Epithelial tissue arises from all three primary germ layers Muscle and connective tissue arise from the mesoderm Nervous tissue arises from the ectoderm With old age there is a decrease in mass and viabililty in most tissues 35 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad By Jitendra Bhangale 36 Asst. Prof. Dept of Pharmacology, Delmar, Cengage Learning Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad © 2010 Smt N. M. Padalia 18