Nervous system by JITENDRA BHANGALE


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Nervous system by JITENDRA BHANGALE

  1. 1. By: Jitendra Bhangale M.Pharm. DIPLBy the end of the lesson you should be able to Describe the transmission of impulses from senses to central nervous system and back to muscles. Describe the reflex action and the pathway of the reflex arc. Describe the function of reflex response. Describe the role of the central nervous system. 1
  2. 2. nervous system 2
  3. 3. sensory relay motorneurone neurone neurone 3
  4. 4. Carries impulses from receptors e.g painreceptors in skin to the CNS( brain or spinalcord)Carries impulses from sensory nerves tomotor nerves. 4
  5. 5. Carries impulses from CNS to effector e.g. muscle tobring about movement or gland to bring aboutsecretion of hormone e.g ADH 5
  6. 6.  Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): craniospinal nerves Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): nerves that control vital organs: heart, lungs, brain, etc. 6
  7. 7. The Central Nervous System includes White matter: bundles of axions and dendrites Gray matter: masses of nerve cell bodies The brain: inside the cranium The spinal cord: inside the vertebral column (the “backbone”) envelop the entire CNS (central nervous system) dura mater The outer, hardest, toughest arachnoid The middle, web like pia mater The inner, thinner 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9.  Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon:- hypothalamus and thalamus Brainstem:- medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain 9
  10. 10. is divided into two cerebral hemisphereshas an outer surface,or CORTEX,made of “gray matter” 10
  11. 11. 1. Left hemisphere:- controls the right side of the body2. Right hemisphere: - controls the left side of the bodyis divided into parts called lobes:1. the frontal lobe2. the parietal lobe3. the temporal lobe4. the occipital lobe 11
  12. 12. is the center for voluntary movement is called the “motor area” (movement) includes the prefrontal area, for intelligence, creativity, memory, and ideas.Collects, recognizes, and organizes sensations:feelings of pain Temperature Touch Position movement 12
  13. 13.  processes auditory (hearing) information stores auditory (hearing) and visual (seeing) memories is at the back of the cerebral hemisphere involves Vision visual memory eye movements 13
  14. 14. coordinates muscle activity has three parts: the vermis the right cerebellar hemisphere the left cerebellar hemisphere is located between the midbrain and thecerebrum has three parts: the thalamus: receives sensory information and sends it to the cerebral cortex. the epithalamus: contains the pineal body and olfactory centers. the hypothalamus: connects the endocrine and nervous systems. 14
  15. 15. connects the endocrine and nervous systems. controls the autonomic nervous system body temperature carbohydrate and fat metabolism appetite emotions w Pons: connects the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum, and cerebrum Midbrain: contains auditory (hearing), visual (sight), and muscle control centers. Medulla oblongata: lowest and most posterior (at the back of the brain)The hindbrain includes the pons and the medulla. 15
  16. 16. Connects the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cerebrum Associates with sensory nerves: taste, hearing, and balance. Controls muscles of the face. 16
  17. 17. controls alertness heart action respiration (breathing) blood pressureconnects the CEREBRUM with the SPINALCORD the RIGHT side of the brain controls the LEFT side of the body. the LEFT side of the brain controls the RIGHT side of the body.controls Vision Hearing Muscles 17
  18. 18.  A reflex is an action that: occurs below the brain, within in the spinal cord is an automatic reaction is not conscious (voluntary) can be inborn (a baby has it at birth, such as sucking, swallowing, urinating) can be learned (such as talking,walking, driving) * An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it. * A reflex happens quickly in less than a second. 18
  19. 19.  INBORN  LEARNED reading knee jerk reflex typing pupillary reflex swimming swallowing dancing coughing skating blinking playing football knee jerk: lower leg jerks when knee is tapped Babinski: toes curl up when sole of foot is stroked pupillary: pupils of eyes contract in bright light 19
  20. 20.  Continuation of the base of the brain surrounded by vertebrae Covered by three protective membranes (meninges) The spaces between the meninges are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which cushion and protect the CNS 20
  21. 21. 1. Center for many reflex actions2. Provides means of communication between the brain and the spinal nerves 21
  22. 22. - Consists of cell bodies and short unmyelinated fibers- H-shaped in a cross section- Includes interneurons and portions of sensory neurons and motor neurons- Consists of bundles of myelinated long fibers of interneurons (tracts)- Connects the spinal to the brain- Dorsally, contains ascending tracts taking information to the brain- Ventrally, contains descending tracts carrying information from the brain 22
  23. 23. - In humans, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves attached to the brain- Include the vagus nerve which has branches to the pharynx and larynx and most of the internal organs 23
  24. 24. - In humans, there are 31 pairs if spinal nerves emerged from the spinal cord- All spinal nerves are mixed nerves conducting impulses to and from the spinal cord 24
  25. 25.  Includes all nerves that serve the internal organs automatically and usually without need for conscious intervention Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems 25
  26. 26.  Nor epinephrine (NE) is neurotransmitter Preganglionic fibers arises from the middle portion of the cord Accelerates heartbeat, dilates the bronchi, increases the breathing rate- Acetylcholine (ACh) is neurotransmitter-- Preganglionic fiber is longer than postganglionic fiber- Preganglionic fiber arises from the brain and lower portion of the cord 26
  27. 27. THANK YOU 27