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  • 1. 9/2/2012 By- Jitendra Bhangale Assistant Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad 1 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life. Cells are the building blocks of all living things. Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function. 2 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 1
  • 2. 9/2/2012 Cells are not all the same All cells share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane 3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Control center of the cell Contains genetic material (DNA) Three regions Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Chromatin 4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 2
  • 3. 9/2/2012 Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell 5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production  Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores 6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 3
  • 4. 9/2/2012 Composed of DNA and protein Scattered throughout the nucleus Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides 7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Other materials in plasma membrane Protein Cholesterol Glycoproteins 8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 4
  • 5. 9/2/2012 9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption 10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 5
  • 6. 9/2/2012 Membrane junctions Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junctions 11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytosol Fluid that suspends other elements Organelles Metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusions Non-functioning units 12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 6
  • 7. 9/2/2012 13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Ribosomes Made of protein and RNA Sites of protein synthesis Found at two locations Free in the cytoplasm Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum 14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 7
  • 8. 9/2/2012 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances Two types of ER Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Studded with ribosomes Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs 15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Golgi apparatus Modifies and packages proteins Produces different types of packages Secretory vesicles Cell membrane components Lysosomes 16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 8
  • 9. 9/2/2012 17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Lysosomes Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell Peroxisomes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Detoxify harmful substances Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) Replicate by pinching in half 18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 9
  • 10. 9/2/2012 Mitochondria “Powerhouses” of the cell Change shape continuously Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Provides ATP for cellular energy 19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Cytoskeleton Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Provides the cell with an internal framework 20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 10
  • 11. 9/2/2012 Cytoskeleton Three different types Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules 21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Centrioles Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division 22 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 11
  • 12. 9/2/2012 Not found in all cells Used for movement Cilia moves materials across the cell surface Flagellum propels the cell 23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 12
  • 13. 9/2/2012 25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 26 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 13
  • 14. 9/2/2012 27 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Membrane Transport – movement of substance into and out of the cell Transport is by two basic methods Passive transport No energy is required Active transport The cell must provide metabolic energy 28 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 14
  • 15. 9/2/2012 Solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solvent – dissolving medium Solutes – components in smaller quantities within a solution Intracellular fluid – nucleoplasm and cytosol Interstitial fluid – fluid on the exterior of the cell 29 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others This permeability includes movement into and out of the cell 30 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 15
  • 16. 9/2/2012 Diffusion Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient 31 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Types of diffusion Simple diffusion Unassisted process Solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through membrane pores 32 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 16
  • 17. 9/2/2012 Types of diffusion Osmosis – simple diffusion of water Highly polar water easily crosses the plasma membrane Facilitated diffusion Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport 33 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 34 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 17
  • 18. 9/2/2012 Filtration Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure A pressure gradient must exist Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area 35 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Transport substances that are unable to pass by diffusion They may be too large They may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane They may have to move against a concentration gradient Two common forms of active transport Solute pumping Bulk transport 36 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 18
  • 19. 9/2/2012 Solute pumping Amino acids, some sugars and ions are transported by solute pumps ATP energizes protein carriers, and in most cases, moves substances against concentration gradients 37 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 38 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 19
  • 20. 9/2/2012 Bulk transport Exocytosis Moves materials out of the cell Material is carried in a membranous vesicle Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane Vesicle combines with plasma membrane Material is emptied to the outside 39 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 40 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 20
  • 21. 9/2/2012 Bulk transport Endocytosis Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle Types of endocytosis Phagocytosis – cell eating Pinocytosis – cell drinking 41 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 42 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 21
  • 22. 9/2/2012 Cells have two major periods Interphase Cell grows Cell carries on metabolic processes Cell division Cell replicates itself Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes 43 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Genetic material duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells Occurs toward the end of interphase DNA uncoils and each side serves as a template 44 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 22
  • 23. 9/2/2012 Mitosis Division of the nucleus Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm Begins when mitosis is near completion Results in the formation of two daughter cells 45 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Interphase No cell division occurs The cell carries out normal metabolic activity and growth Prophase First part of cell division Centromeres migrate to the poles 46 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 23
  • 24. 9/2/2012 Metaphase Spindle from centromeres are attached to chromosomes that are aligned in the center of the cell 47 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Anaphase Daughter chromosomes are pulled toward the poles The cell begins to elongate Telophase Daughter nuclei begin forming A cleavage furrow (for cell division) begins to form 48 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 24
  • 25. 9/2/2012 49 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 50 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 25
  • 26. 9/2/2012 Gene – DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein Proteins have many functions Building materials for cells Act as enzymes (biological catalysts) RNA is essential for protein synthesis 51 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built Messanger RNA Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome 52 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 26
  • 27. 9/2/2012 Transcription Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA Translation Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins 53 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 54 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage LearningBy J. O. Bhangale, Head, Dept of Pharmacology, Smt N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, A’bad 27
  • 28. 9/2/2012 By Jitendra Bhangale 55Asst. Prof. Dept of Pharmacology, Delmar, Cengage Learning Pharmacy College, Ahmedabad © 2010 Smt N. M. Padalia 28