Industrialization is the process of social and
economic change that transforms a human group
from an agriculture land into an industrial one
Part of a wider modernization process, where social
change and economic development are closely
related with technological innovation
Extensive organization of an economy for the
purpose of manufacturing
Characteristics of industrialization
• The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms
itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on
the manufacturing of goods and services.
• Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized
mass production and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines.
• Characteristics of industrialization include the use of technological
innovation to solve problems as opposed to superstition or
dependency upon conditions outside human control such as the
weather, as well as more efficient division of labor and economic
Gross domestic product per capita between 1500 and 1950
EFFECTS OF Industrialization
Growth of Carbon Dioxide
Effects of Carbon Dioxide
Global Warming due
to Greenhouse Gases,
• Sea level rise
• Increase in
• Possible extinction
of humans, animals
Electrical Generator Energy
Use of energy from Electrical Generator for industries
by Industrial Plant
to Drive Traditional
Motor Energy Losses
Due to Inefficiency of
of about 80%,
14% of energy
delivered by power
plant is lost.
Plant to Drive
Energy Distribution Showing Losses
Negative Aspects of Energy Utilization
Malthus main argument was that our world was heading
towards social disorder.
Because population would tend to increase in geometric
progression (2, 4, 8, 16, 32), whereas food production
would increase in arithmetic progression (2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
because farmland is limited.
THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZATION
• The concentration of labour into factories has
brought about the rise of large towns to serve
and house the factory workers.
• General increase in population and the
amount of industrialization of a settlement.
• It symbolizes the movement of people from
rural to urban areas.
Features of URBANIZATION
• Urban sprawl (increase in the peripheral area of
• The city and its infrastructure may not be adequately
• Traffic is high with increased time needed for
• Essential services are not reachable within time.
• City administration becomes extremely difficult.
CAUSES OF URBANIZATION
The three main causes of urbanization1. Rural to urban migration is happening on a large scale
due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas.
This are 'push' factors.
2. People living in rural areas are 'pulled' to the city. Often
they believe that the standard of living in urban areas will be
much better than in rural areas. They are usually wrong.
People also hope for well paid jobs, the greater opportunities
to find casual or 'informal' work, better health care and
3. Natural increase caused by a decrease in death rates while
birth rates remain high.
Urban and rural populations of the world, 1950-2050
Adverse effects of Urbanization
• Increasing competition for facilities due to the
high standard of living in urban areas
• Growth of slums (urban areas that are heavily
populated with substandard housing and very
poor living conditions) its leads to-
Land in security - Slums are usually located on land, which are not owned by
the slum dwellers. They can be evicted at any time by the landowners.
Poor living conditions - Crowding and lack of sanitation are main problems.
Outbreak of diseases- Utilities such as water, electricity and sewage disposal
are also scarce.
Unemployment - Since the number of people competing for jobs is more
than jobs available, unemployment is an inevitable problem.
Crime - Slum conditions make maintenance of law and order difficult.
Patrolling of slums is not a priority of law enforcing officers.
Unemployment and poverty force people into anti-social activities. Slums
become a breeding ground for criminal activities.
Environmental impacts of urbanization
• Temperature - Due to factors such as paving over formerly
vegetated land, increasing number of residences and high-rise
apartments and industries, temperature increases drastically.
• Air pollution - Factories and automobiles are symbols of
urbanization. Due to harmful emissions of gases and smoke from
factories and vehicles, air pollution occurs.
• Water issues - When urbanization takes place, water cycle changes
as cities have more precipitation than surrounding areas. Due to
dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution
occurs which can lead to outbreaks of epidemics.
• Destruction of Habitats - To make an area urbanized, a lot of
forested areas are destroyed. Usually these areas would have been
habitats to many birds and animals.
Benefits of urbanization
• Efficiency - Cities are extremely efficient. Less effort is
needed to supply basic amenities such as fresh water and
• Convenience - Access to education, health, social services and
cultural activities is readily available to people in cities than in
villages. Life in cities is much more advanced, sophisticated
and comfortable, compared to life in villages.
• Concentration of resources - Since major human settlements
were established near natural resources from ancient times, a
lot of resources are available in and around cities. A lot of
facilities to exploit these resources also exist only in cities. 24
• Educational facilities - Schools, colleges and universities are
established in cities to develop human resources. A variety of
educational courses and fields are available offering students a
wide choice for their future careers.
• Social integration - People of many castes and religions live and
work together in cities, which creates better understanding and
harmony and helps breakdown social and cultural barriers.
• Improvements in economy - High-tech industries earn valuable
foreign exchange and lot of money for a country in the stock
Result of urbanization