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  • 1. Banu .S and Nayana .P and Jitendra Kumar Jr . M.F.Sc College of Fisheries Mangalore jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 2. Overviews Ecological concepts  Mortality  Risk selected species Habitat concepts  Ecological niche  Carrying capacity jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 3. Mortality  Mortality is the condition of being mortal , or susceptible to death .  Rate at which individuals are lost by death ( death rate)  Mortality is a measure of the no. of deaths ( in general , or due to a specific cause ) in a populations . jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 4. R- selected species  These organisms live in setting, where population level below the maximum no. that environment can support the carrying capacity.  Their nos are going exponentially high at the maximum rate  Organism tend to be small, short lived and opportunistic .  They grow through irregular boom and bust in a population cycle jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 5.  R- selected species like insect, bacteria and largest species such as frog, rats  They are capable of rapid growth.  They need favorable condition for their growth.  These r- selected species mature later in life and have fewer offspring with longer gestation times. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 6. Habitat in an ecosystem  Ecologist use the term habitat to mean the role that the organism live and term ecological niche to mean that the role of organism plays in the ecosystem  Habitat is the “address” and Niche is the “profession” jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 7. Ecological niche  Different species interact in different ways.  Interaction can have positive, negative and neutral impact on the species involved.  Each species in an ecosystem occupies a niche  Niche can be defined as interaction of all the ranges of tolerance, under which an organisms can live. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 8.  Niche can be easier to quantify and analyze.  It can be described as specific ranges of variables like temperature, latitude and altitude.  For example: African fisheagle occupies very similar ecological niche to the American bald eagle.  The full range of habitat types in which the species can exist and reproduce without any competition from other species is called fundamental niche. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 9. Carrying capacity  Carrying capacity of environment varies from region to region depending on population pressure.  Their dependences on food, water, energy, raw material requirement, waste production.  Carrying capacity of environment is the threshold limit of use of that ecosystem without damaging the systems. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 10.  Every ecosystems has its resources that are used for economic development for survival and for the habitat creation.  Regenerating them over the period of time that are temporary and not exceeding threshold damage limit. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
  • 11. jitenderanduat@gmail.com