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Ppt4   london -  michael rudgyard ( concurrent thinking ) driving efficiencies through measuring and monitoring in the data centre
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Ppt4 london - michael rudgyard ( concurrent thinking ) driving efficiencies through measuring and monitoring in the data centre



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  • 1. Measuring and monitoring to support the EU code of conduct Michael Rudgyard (CTO) Concurrent Thinking Ltd
  • 2. EU Code of Conduct – Participant Commitments• The participant commitments define minimum obligations (roughly): – Provision of monthly DCiE / PUE measurements – Provision of IT rated electrical load capacity of the DC – Target inlet temperature for IT equipment (optional) – External monthly average ambient temperature (optional) – External monthly average dew point temperature (optional)• It also requires the DC to commit to an energy-saving action plan: – A number of potential ways to save energy are suggested – Most (all ?) involve some level of monitoring
  • 3. monitoring vs. Monitoring (1)• It is simple (but neither cost-effective nor sensible) to monitor your data centre using the ‘man and a clip-board’ technique• Sadly, this is the ‘state of the art’ for a lot of data centres, each housing many millions of pounds of high-tech IT equipment• But information is power, and power is money….
  • 4. monitoring vs. Monitoring (2)• Much more effective to Monitor on as fine grain a level as possible – To truly understand where energy savings can be made – To understand how factors vary over time / with load etc – To give ample warning of potential (often critical) issues – To report factual information to management – To drive continuous iterative improvement over time• Real energy and productivity savings require a ‘joined-up’ approach – Managing buildings, data-centre facilities and IT in a unified manner – .. opening the door to the possibility of orchestration of the data-centre
  • 5. Monitoring Energy and PUE (or DCiE)• First step is to monitor power; then understand where the power is going.• Next step is to measure PUE – Most new data centres are being designed against PUE targets – Many existing data centres are looking to improve their PUE – Aim to reduce energy utilisation through incremental improvements to PUE – The average data centre has a PUE of 1.9 (Kooney, 2010), but most should be able to achieve a figure below 1.5 (??)• Caveats: – Officially, PUE needs to be an annualised average … not a ‘snap shot’ – However, continuous PUE ‘snap-shots’ are useful to help drive improvement
  • 6. Monitoring key infrastructure• Cooling the data centre is the key overhead that is measured by PUE – But many do not continuously monitor the effectiveness of cooling equipment – Basic assumption: “if the air is cool enough, then the aircon is working… “• But cooling infrastructure is generally depreciated over several years – Despite expensive support contracts, its efficiency may diminish significantly.. – Its efficiency may also be influenced by other changes in the data centre – When should cooling systems be replaced (OPEX vs. CAPEX) ????• Need to track fine-grain power utilisation to really understand issues
  • 7. Environmental Monitoring• There are significant opportunities for improvements in most data centres – The majority operate at temperatures at >3-4oC below (old) ASHRAE recommendations (Paterson et al, 2009) – A 1oC increase in temperature equates to a 2-4% reduction in energy (California Energy Commission, 2007; UK financial institution, 2011)• It is critical to monitor temperature on as fine grain a level as possible – To understand where hot-spots are, and how these change over time – To give ample warning of cooling failure with a smaller thermal ‘buffer’ – Relating temperatures to energy use helps drive iterative improvement• The more real-time measurements, the better – Ideally at the rack, sub-rack, server – ……..or even processor level !!
  • 8. Environmental Monitoring (cont…)• Should monitor IT hardware (eg. IPMI) to fully optimise environmentals – Understand the effect of power used by (inefficient) server fans – To identify faulty equipment that we might be overcompensating for…
  • 9. Driving End-User Behaviour• With few exceptions, the most successful methodology for improving energy conservation across all sectors is: – Step 1: Identify who/what is responsible for significant energy waste – Step 2: Drive behaviour to ‘encourage’ change• What is the implication for the Data Centre ?• Need to report (charge ?) IT power by customer, department or end-user – Track energy (& energy efficiency) to the server ,VM or even application level – Who or what applications/service are the worst offenders ? – Management can use data to drive better practice
  • 10. Next steps: DC design vs. operational efficiency• Most new data centres are being designed against PUE targets – For a given IT hardware capacity, PUE is a good planning metric – However, it is often a poor operational metric• Most importantly: what if the servers are not doing any useful work ?? – The data centre may still have a ‘good’ PUE, but it would be very inefficient by any business metric• We really need to monitor IT utilisation: – Surveys imply that IT utilisation is between 5 & 10% for an un-virtualised DC, rising to 10 & 20% for a fully virtualised DC – In a typical DC, 10% of running servers are not in use at all (Green Grid Survey, 2010)
  • 11. ‘ITUE’ – A better class of efficiency metrics ?• Some simple ITUE metrics may be derived, eg: – Normalised CPU Utilisation/watt – for compute bound tasks – IOPS/watt – when I/O is predominant – Bytes/watt – for network utilisation – All three !• Some end-users may be interested in application-related metrics: – Database transactions/watt – Page refresh/watt Compute Utilisation – Search/watt Effectiveness 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Network Storage Utilisation Utilisation Effectiveness Effectiveness
  • 12. Understanding IT utilisation• Understanding IT utilisation and ITUE metrics can help reduce overall power utilisation very significantly – Remembering that PUE is relative to IT power !!• In particular, it can also help us to identify – Who is using the power they are assigned in an efficient way – Which servers/VM/applications are delivering best ‘value’• In particular, ‘sweating’ the IT assets may not be smart after all ! – What is the efficiency of service delivery on individual platforms – When do running costs exceed depreciation costs – What replacement platform should be procured etc ??
  • 13. Q: Isn’t Virtualisation the answer ?• A: It is (an important) part of the answer• Typically human behaviour is: – A customer replaces a 3 year old (then state-of-the-art) server with a new state-of-the-art server – He puts a number of VMs on his new (much faster) server rather than the single OS instance on his much slower server – He typically doubles his IT efficiency (from 10% to 20%)• This demonstrates the need to spec new equipment based on historical application and user requirements• As with hardware, some VMs may not be used at all over time…
  • 14. Continuous Iterative Improvement• Monitoring and Reporting alone do not produce savings• Use data to agree, plan & make iterative improvements: – Eg. Make incremental changes to data centre environmentals; riase CRAC temperatures; find hotspots; move equipment; improve airflow – Eg. Identify unused servers, underused servers and decommission; identify servers that are not used at night, weekends etc and employ active power management; define virtualisation strategy based on real data etc.• This is not without its complexities – Requires cross-cultural change (IT, Facilities, Building Management) – Requires openness and end-user targetting (no-one is an angel…) – Requires detailed planning and (often) down-time• Rewards can be significant, even by focussing on simple changes – >25% energy savings in 1st year ?
  • 15. Conclusions• Efficient DCs should monitor & manage both IT and Facilities systems in a coherent manner: – Environmental systems (temperature, humidity, air-conditioning..) – Power (at the distribution board, rack PDU and server PSU level …) – IT equipment (using standard protocols such as IPMI and SNMP…) – Operating systems & Virtual Machines (integrating with IT systems) – ..and perhaps applications themselves• In the future, we will move to the autonomous data centre – Emphasis moves from monitoring to active management – Potential for very significant energy savings…