Green space and mental wellbeing:does green space make a difference?          Catharine Ward Thompson     Professor of Lan...
Research summaryUrban green nation:                             Research
Context:
                              green
spac...
Findings
from
Urban
green
na)on:

       Building
the
Informa)on
Base

     (Glen
Bramley,
Caroline
Brown,
David
Watkins,
...
Research
ques@ons
from
CABE
Space
•  How
is
the
quality
of
urban
green
space
   important
and
significant
to
the
health
and...
Methodology
•  Literature
review
•  Project
review
•  IdenFficaFon
of
case
study
areas
•  Focus
groups
(n=44)
•  Environmen...
Iden@fica@on
of
case
study
areas
High
levels
of
deprivaFon
(IMD)
High
percentages
of
black
and
minority
ethnic
populaFons
W...
Household
Survey
Part
A:

the
role
of
urban
green
space
in
making
an
area
       the
best
place
to
live
     AdapFve
conjo...
Results:
what
is
important
for
a
good
place
to
live
•  Area safety and securityare most important(16.3%).•  House/flat sui...
Sta@s@cally
significant
differences
      between
ethnic
groups
on
3
key
                 variables
•  SaFsfacFon
with
local...
Many
highly
significant
rela@onships
between
key
health
and
well‐being
variables
and
percep@ons
of
neighbourhood
          ...
Evidence from GreenHealth – a ScottishGovernment commissioned study – and    OPENspace ongoing research Catharine
Ward
Tho...
Key
drivers
for
the
research
•  Urban
green
space
more
closely
associated
   with
health
for
those
living
in
poverty/   de...
Study
framework
1.
Using
salivary
cor@sol
as
a
biomarker
of
  stress

2.
Exploring
the
effect
of
green
space
on
  cor@sol
p...
Principal
research
ques@on
1.  Among
residents
of
deprived
urban
areas
in
    Scotland,
is
the
presence
of
different
    am...
Early,
exploratory
cor@sol
study,
              n=23

Early,
exploratory

cor@sol
study

Main
objecFves
:
•  To
test
recruitment
efficiency;
•  To
test
parFcipant
adherence
to
un...
Pilot
cor@sol
study

Study
design
Cross‐secFonal
study,
city‐wide
in
Dundee
(highly
deprived
neighbourhoods
with
varying
l...
Outcome
measures
1.
Paierns
of
corFsol
secreFon
(derived
from
mulFple
saliva
sampling
across
2
consecuFve
days);
2.
Self‐r...
Results:

Demographics
•  Age:

mean
of
43.4
years
(SD
8.2)

•  Gender:
12
males,
13
females.
•  Socio‐economic
status:

7...
Percentage
green
space
in
           neighbourhood

•  ResidenFal
environment
was
defined
by
CAS
   Ward

•  %
of
green
spa...
Percentage
green
space
in
     neighbourhood


Typical
high
green
space
                        neighbourhood

        The "Fintry" ward                                 ...
Typical
low
green
space
                        neighbourhoods

                                                          ...
PaTerns
of
cor@sol
results
                                                                     The difference            ...
Results:
cor@sol,
self‐report
measures
of
        health
and
green
space
rela@onships
!"#$%&()*&+),-"%.""(,/0%&)#,+$%%"0()...
Main
cor@sol
study,
n=106
  Preliminary
Findings

Main
research
ques@ons:

• Does
sampling
in
the
wider
populaFon
of
unemployed
  people
in
the
same
context
of
deprivaFon
 ...
Results:
demographics
•  Age:
mean
=
44.74
years
(SD
0.67)
•  Gender:
53
males
+
53
females

•  Socio‐economic
status:
72%...
Summary
•  Levels
of
green
space
in
the
residenFal
environment
   can
significantly
predict
self‐reported
stress
and
   cor...
Acknowledgements
•  Scoosh
Government
Rural
and
Environment
   Research
and
Analysis
Directorate
(RERAD).
•  David
Miller
...
Front garden, Fintry, Dundeewww.openspace.eca.ac.uk
Landscape and Health                  Innovative Research ingiat wis adTem duntxercil duisi ad modipit e magnit alisugue m...
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Green space and mental wellbeing: does green space make a difference? - Catherine Ward Thompson, OPENspace Research Centre

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Presentation on Green Space and Mental Wellbeing given by Catherine Ward Thompson, Professor of Architecture and Director of the OPENspace Research Centre, at the JISC GECO Open Source geo and Health Event (#gecohealth), held on Tuesday 9th August 2011, at the Edinburgh Napier University Merchiston Campus.

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Green space and mental wellbeing: does green space make a difference? - Catherine Ward Thompson, OPENspace Research Centre

  1. 1. Green space and mental wellbeing:does green space make a difference? Catharine Ward Thompson Professor of Landscape Architecture Director, OPENspace Research Centre Edinburgh College of Art Universities of Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt www.openspace.eca.ac.uk
  2. 2. Research summaryUrban green nation: Research
Context:
 green
space
in
Building the evidence base England
 Catharine
Ward
 Thompson,
Jenny
 Roe,
Peter
Aspinall
 and
Affonso
Zuin

 CABE
Space
2010

  3. 3. Findings
from
Urban
green
na)on:

 Building
the
Informa)on
Base

 (Glen
Bramley,
Caroline
Brown,
David
Watkins,
HWU)
•  QuanFty
of
public
green
space
in
urban
deprived
 areas
is
generally
worse
than
in
affluent
areas,
and
 saFsfacFon
with
local
area
is
also
worse
in
deprived
 areas.
•  Black
and
minority
ethnic
communiFes
(BME)
tend
 to
have
less
green
space
which
is
of
a
poorer
quality.

•  The
higher
the
quality
of
the
green
space,
the
more
 likely
it
is
to
be
used.

•  Poorer
communiFes
are
less
physically
acFve
and
 have
poorer
health.


  4. 4. Research
ques@ons
from
CABE
Space
•  How
is
the
quality
of
urban
green
space
 important
and
significant
to
the
health
and
well‐ being
of
different
ethnic
communiFes
living
in
six
 deprived
urban
areas
of
England?
•  What
is
the
impact
of
varying
quality
of
urban
 green
space
on
health
and
well‐being
in
these
 areas?

•  What
are
the
implicaFons
of
these
findings
for
 naFonal
and
local
policy?


  5. 5. Methodology
•  Literature
review
•  Project
review
•  IdenFficaFon
of
case
study
areas
•  Focus
groups
(n=44)
•  Environmental
audiFng
of
local
green
space
 (with
local
community
members,
n=30)
•  Household
survey
(n=523)

  6. 6. Iden@fica@on
of
case
study
areas
High
levels
of
deprivaFon
(IMD)
High
percentages
of
black
and
minority
ethnic
populaFons
With
same
percentages
of
urban
green
space
but
varying
quality
6
‘paired’
case
study
areas
•  Greater
Manchester
A
&
B
•  West
Midlands
A
&
B
•  London
A
and
B

  7. 7. Household
Survey
Part
A:

the
role
of
urban
green
space
in
making
an
area
 the
best
place
to
live
 AdapFve
conjoint
analysis

  8. 8. Results:
what
is
important
for
a
good
place
to
live
•  Area safety and securityare most important(16.3%).•  House/flat suitability(15.2%), is c. 1.5 timesas important as access togreen space (9.79%)•  Availability of publictransport is only 1.2 timesas important.•  Green spacecontributes comparativelyc. 10% to making thearea a good place to live•  Ethnicity was related tohaving more concern withsafety Average utilities for each attribute in the ACA analysis
  9. 9. Sta@s@cally
significant
differences
 between
ethnic
groups
on
3
key
 variables
•  SaFsfacFon
with
local
neighbourhood,
p<0.001
•  SaFsfacFon
with
local
green
space,
p<0.001
•  Safety
when
visiFng
local
urban
green
space,
p<0.001

  10. 10. Many
highly
significant
rela@onships
between
key
health
and
well‐being
variables
and
percep@ons
of
neighbourhood
 green
space
quality

  11. 11. Evidence from GreenHealth – a ScottishGovernment commissioned study – and OPENspace ongoing research Catharine
Ward
Thompson1,
Jenny
Roe1,
Peter
A.
 Aspinall1,
Angela
Clow2,
Richard
Mitchell3
 1OPENspace
Research
Centre,
Edinburgh
College
of
Art/Heriot‐Wai
 University,
UK
 2Department
of
Psychology,
University
of
Westminster,
UK
 3Centre
of
PopulaFon
Health
Sciences,
University
of
Glasgow,
UK

  12. 12. Key
drivers
for
the
research
•  Urban
green
space
more
closely
associated
 with
health
for
those
living
in
poverty/ deprivaFon
(Mitchell
and
Popham
2008)
and
 those
spending
much
of
their
Fme
at
home
 (de
Vries
et
al
2003).
•  Lack
of
evidence
using
physiological
measures
 ‐

biomarkers
‐
of
stress
to
measure
impact
of
 urban
green
space
on
health
encountered
as
 part
of
‘everyday
life’.


  13. 13. Study
framework
1.
Using
salivary
cor@sol
as
a
biomarker
of
 stress

2.
Exploring
the
effect
of
green
space
on
 cor@sol
paTerns
•  Early,
exploratory

corFsol
study,
January
2010
 (n=23)
•  Main
corFsol
study,
May‐June
2010
(n=106,
 incorporaFng
early
study
parFcipants)

  14. 14. Principal
research
ques@on
1.  Among
residents
of
deprived
urban
areas
in
 Scotland,
is
the
presence
of
different
 amounts
of
green
space
in
the
home
 environment
associated
with
stress
as
 measured
by
levels
and/or
diurnal
paierns
of
 corFsol
secreFon
and
self‐reported
stress
 and
wellbeing?
2.
Are
there
any
sub‐group
paierns?


 


  15. 15. Early,
exploratory
cor@sol
study,
 n=23

  16. 16. Early,
exploratory

cor@sol
study

Main
objecFves
:
•  To
test
recruitment
efficiency;
•  To
test
parFcipant
adherence
to
unsupervised
 collecFon
of
saliva
samples,
within
the
 domesFc
seong.
•  To
explore
sensiFvity
of
green
space
data
to
 corFsol
levels.


  17. 17. Pilot
cor@sol
study

Study
design
Cross‐secFonal
study,
city‐wide
in
Dundee
(highly
deprived
neighbourhoods
with
varying
levels
of
green
space).
 Low
green
space
Target
group
People
not
in
work,
aged
45‐55,
male
and
female
recruited
via
unemployment
training
centres
in
Dundee
over
a
4
week
period
in
January
2010.



 
High
green
space

  18. 18. Outcome
measures
1.
Paierns
of
corFsol
secreFon
(derived
from
mulFple
saliva
sampling
across
2
consecuFve
days);
2.
Self‐reported
stress
(PSS,
Cohen
et
al
1983)
3.
Mental
well‐being
(SWEMWBS,
Stewart‐Brown
et
al
2009).
4.
Levels
of
physical
acFvity
(BHFNC
2008).


  19. 19. Results:

Demographics
•  Age:

mean
of
43.4
years
(SD
8.2)

•  Gender:
12
males,
13
females.
•  Socio‐economic
status:

72%
unemployed,

 Carstairs
score*,
mean
of
6.09
(high
 deprivaFon).
•  Subjec@ve
income:
61%
finding
it
‘difficult
or
 ‘very
difficult’
to
cope
on
current
income
 levels.


*


indicator
of
area‐level
socio‐economic
deprivaFon
based
on
 prevalence
of
household
overcrowding,
unemployment
 among
men,
low
social
class,
and
not
having
a
car


  20. 20. Percentage
green
space
in
 neighbourhood

•  ResidenFal
environment
was
defined
by
CAS
 Ward

•  %
of
green
space
in
each
parFcipant’s
 residenFal
environment
based
on
data
from
 the
Centre
for
Research
on
Environment
 Society
and
Health
(CRESH)
(Richardson
&
 Mitchell,
2010;
Mitchell
et
al.,
2011)
•  parks,
woodlands,
scrub
and
other
natural
 environments
included,
but
not
include
 private
gardens.


  21. 21. Percentage
green
space
in
 neighbourhood


  22. 22. Typical
high
green
space
 neighbourhood

 The "Fintry" ward (%)0#.2,.*,30)2 /*0+,%1,!"##$%& ()*++,-.& !"##$%&4 56%&,5%786"09$:*.$.;.2+,6"09$,<==>?,3,@6*.A+,B)6C+8:/(DE3,2)77#"+*,2+6C"A+
  23. 23. Typical
low
green
space
 neighbourhoods

 (%)0#.2,.*,30)2 /*0+,%1,!"##$%& ()*++,-.& !"##$%&4 56%&,5%786"09$:*.$.;.2+,6"09$,<==>?,3,@6*.A+,B)6C+8:/(DE3,2)77#"+*,2+6C"A+
  24. 24. PaTerns
of
cor@sol
results
 The difference between groups is significant (p=0.039).•  The flatter slope (blue) indicates exhaustion/dysregulation of the cortisol secretion system, & lower mean cortisol level for participants in this group•  The steeper slope (green) indicates healthier diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion
  25. 25. Results:
cor@sol,
self‐report
measures
of
 health
and
green
space
rela@onships
!"#$%&()*&+),-"%.""(,/0%&)#,+$%%"0()1,)"#230"+0%"4,)%0")),$(4,."##-"&(51,$(4,50""(,)+$/",,6"$0)(7),-&8$0&$%",/00"#$%&(),!"#$%$&()*+,-+.$/0&1+&2$ 30+405($ 6-+.4&-($ 6-+.4&-($ ".+&&$ 9((547:$$ 8>?&4@0($ B$:+7$ 34&10($0@@&&$.-$C+7$ /07$ &(-,$ !8""2$$ !"9;<9="2$ 0@.4A4.?$ &,0@$ &,0@$!)+-/$>-/2$$ !"#2$ !"#2$ !"#2$ !"#2$ 6-+.4&-($/07$ D$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 6-+.4&-($&(-,$ EFGFHH$ D$ $ $ $ $ $ $ ".+&&$!8""2$ *EIIG$ *EJFDH$ D$ $ $ $ $ $ 9((547:$ EIKIH$ EIKLH$ *ELMNHH$ D$ $ $ $ !"9;<9="2$ 8>?&4@0($0@.4A4.?$ EIJM$ EJKFHH$ *ENKJ$ EIMFH$ D$ $ $ $ B$:+7$&,0@$ EDOJ$ EILOH$ *EJMJHH$ ENKG$ EDLF$ D$ $ $ 34&10($0@@&&$.-$ EMLK$ EIGM$ *ENFK$ EMNO$ *EGFI$ EJNJHH$ D$ C+7$&,0@$$ !)+-/$>-/2$HH$%$&4:74)4@07.$0.$.>$!"GEGD$(A($!M*.04(P2$H$%$&4:74)4@07.$0.$.>$!"GEGJ$(A($!M*.04(P2E$
  26. 26. Main
cor@sol
study,
n=106
 Preliminary
Findings

  27. 27. Main
research
ques@ons:

• Does
sampling
in
the
wider
populaFon
of
unemployed
 people
in
the
same
context
of
deprivaFon
 demonstrate
similar
associaFons
between
stress
 (corFsol)
and
green
space?

• Are
there
sub‐group
variaFons?
• Is
there
any
effect
of
seasonality?


Study
Design:

replicaFon
of
pilot
(i.e.cross‐secFonal,
city‐wide
in
Dundee,
five
week
period
(May‐June
2010)).
Recruitment
method:

door‐to‐door
(via
market
survey
company)
with
follow‐up
briefing
session
in
city‐centre
by
research
team.



  28. 28. Results:
demographics
•  Age:
mean
=
44.74
years
(SD
0.67)
•  Gender:
53
males
+
53
females

•  Socio‐economic
status:
72%
unemployed,
 average
Carstairs
score*
=
6.64
(SD
0.21).
•  Subjec@ve
income:
difficulFes
in
income
 coping
=
61%

*
indicator
of
area‐level
socio‐economic
deprivaFon
based
on
 prevalence
of
household
overcrowding,
unemployment
 among
men,
low
social
class,
and
not
having
a
car


  29. 29. Summary
•  Levels
of
green
space
in
the
residenFal
environment
 can
significantly
predict
self‐reported
stress
and
 corFsol
(average
levels
and
diurnal
slope
paierns)
–
 a
biomarker
of
stress
–
in
deprived
urban
 communiFes;
•  The
effect
of
green
space
on
stress
may
be
mediated
 by
gender,
with
a
stronger
posiFve
effect
of
 increasing
green
space
on
corFsol
concentraFons
in
 women;

•  Development
of
an
ecologically
valid
and
objecFve
 measure
to
further
evidence
for
a
salutogenic
 environment‐body
interacFon.

  30. 30. Acknowledgements
•  Scoosh
Government
Rural
and
Environment
 Research
and
Analysis
Directorate
(RERAD).
•  David
Miller
and
staff,
James
Huion
Research
 InsFtute,
Aberdeen
and
BiomathemaFcs
and
 StaFsFcs
Scotland
•  Facilitators
and
parFcipants
in
Dundee.



  31. 31. Front garden, Fintry, Dundeewww.openspace.eca.ac.uk
  32. 32. Landscape and Health Innovative Research ingiat wis adTem duntxercil duisi ad modipit e magnit alisugue magna digna feui bla ero delesto Innovative Research in u feumnt dolore tat, Landscape and Health Edited by Catharine Ward Thompson,am ipit init Simon Bell & Peter A. Aspinall Edited by Catharine Ward Thompson,elendrem num Simon Bell & Peter J. Aspinallmod eriure atet iniamr iliquamccumm exerat For
more
info
contact 
 openspace@ed.ac.uk 
 www.openspace.eca.ac.uk 


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