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Unit 4

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  • 1. AIDS: A Four Letter Word Unit 4 Viruses, Bacteria, and Immunology
  • 2. Bacteria  Unicellular prokaryotes (lack a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles)  Contain a cell wall  Bacteria are separated into two kingdoms – Eubacteria – Archaebacteria
  • 3. Section 18-3 Concept Map are characterized by such as and differing which place them in which coincides withwhich coincides with which place them in which is subdivided into Living Things Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria Eukaryotic cellsProkaryotic cells Important characteristics Cell wall structures Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia
  • 4. DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals Eukarya Classification of Living Things Section 18-3 Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains
  • 5. Section 19-1 Concept Map are classified into the kingdoms of live in harsh environments such as include a variety of lifestyles such as Bacteria Eubacteria Archaebacteria Infecting large organisms Thick mudLiving in soil Animal digestive tracts Salty lakes Hot springs
  • 6. Eubacteria vs. Archaebacteria  Eubacteria – Exist almost everywhere (fresh water, salt water, land, humans) – Have cell walls made of peptidoglycan (a carbohydrate)  Archaebacteria – Many live in extremely harsh environments – Have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan – May be the ancestors of eukaryotes
  • 7. Peptidoglycan Cell wall Cell membrane Ribosome Flagellum DNA Pili The Structure of a Eubacterium (Escherichia coli)
  • 8. Images taken from: www.mirandacastro.com/ articles/images/bacilli.jpg, www.bio.davidson.edu/.../ restricted/bacilli.jpg, biology.clc.uc.edu/.../ bacilli_P7060990.jpg Shapes of Bacteria 1. Bacilli (Rod-shaped)
  • 9. Images taken from: www.astrosurf.com/lombry/ Bio/cellule-cocci.jpg, www.aae.org/ images/cocci.gif Shapes of Bacteria 2. Cocci (Spherical-shaped)
  • 10. These images were taken from: www.uic.edu/classes/ bios/bios100/labs/celllab.htm, www.dmu.edu/ microbiology/bacteria.htm Shapes of Bacteria 3. Spirilla (Spiral and corkscrew-shaped)
  • 11. Metabolism Energy  Heterotrophs – obtain energy from organic molecules (eat)  Autotrophs – make their own food from inorganic molecules – Photoautotroph – uses the sun to make organic compounds – Chemoautotrophs – uses the energy from chemical reactions to make organic compounds  Saprophytic – live of dead or decaying organic matter – decomposers
  • 12. Metabolism Respiration  Obligate aerobes – organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen  Obligate anaerobes – organisms that do NOT require oxygen  Facultative anaerobes – organisms that can survive with or without oxygen
  • 13. The following image was taken from: fig.cox.miami.edu/.../ 150/mitosis/fission.jpg Growth and Reproduction 1. Binary fission – DNA replicates and bacterium divides in half; produces two identical daughter cells - asexual reproduction
  • 14. This following image was taken from: fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/ 150/gene/sf9x3box.jpg Growth and Reproduction 2. Conjugation – The exchange of genetic information through a hollow bridge – Sexual reproduction
  • 15. Conjugation
  • 16. This image was taken from: fruit.naro.affrc.go.jp/. ../micro/AJ007.gif Growth and Reproduction 3. Spore formation – The formation of spores during harsh conditions – Remain dormant until conditions are better
  • 17. The Importance of Bacteria  Bacteria act as decomposers – by breaking down dead organic matter into important materials that are released into the soil  Bacteria act as nitrogen fixers – Rhizobium bacteria convert nitrogen gas into a form plants can use (nitrogen cycle)
  • 18. The Importance of Bacteria Cont.  Human uses of bacteria . . . – Food and beverage production  Canning (temperature and pressure) – Oil spill clean up – Remove waste products and poisons from water – Mine minerals from the ground
  • 19. Viruses  Viruses are made of . . . – Non-cellular particle (no organelles) – Genetic material (DNA or RNA) – Protein (outer coat or capsid) – Example - bacteriophage
  • 20. Virus Structures T4 Bacteriophage Tobacco Mosaic Virus Influenza Virus Head Tail sheath DNA Tail fiber RNA Capsid Surface proteins Membrane envelope RNA Capsid proteins Section 19-2
  • 21. Viral Infections  A virus binds to specific proteins on the host cell’s surface  Two types of viral infections – Lytic infection – Lysogenic infection
  • 22. Lytic Infection vs. Lysogenic Infection Lytic Infection  A virus enters the cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst Lysogenic Infection  A virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell  The viral DNA replicates with the host cell’s DNA
  • 23. Lytic and Lysogenic Infections
  • 24. Disease  Disease – any change, other than injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body  Symptoms – any change in the body as a result of disease  Pathogen – a disease-causing agent – Examples: bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoans  Germ theory of disease – infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs
  • 25. The pathogen should always be found in the body of a sick organism and should not be found in a healthy one. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in the laboratory in a pure culture. When purified pathogens are placed in a new host, they should cause the same disease that infected the host. The very same pathogen should be reisolated from the second host. And it should be the same as the original pathogen. No pathogen Suspected pathogen Suspected pathogen Injection of organisms from pure culture Pathogen Dead mouse Dead mouse Dead mouse Healthy mouse Healthy mouse Suspected pathogen grown in pure culture. Section 40-1 Koch’s Postulates: rules used to identify the cause of a disease
  • 26. Spread of Disease  Diseases can be spread through – Physical contact – Contaminated food and water – Infected animals
  • 27. Bacterial Disease  Some common bacterial diseases include bacterial meningitis, lyme disease, and strep throat  How do bacteria produce disease? – Use cells for food (ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis) – Release toxins into body (ex. Streptococcus)
  • 28. Bacterial Diseases Cont.  Vaccines can prevent bacterial diseases – The weakened or killed pathogen is injected into the body  Antibiotics can be used to attack and destroy bacteria once it invades the body – Block growth and reproduction of bacteria – Examples – penicillin and tetracycline
  • 29. Viral Diseases  Common viral diseases include chickenpox, colds, flu, warts, West Nile, and AIDS  How do viruses cause disease? – Attack and destroy certain cells – Causes a disruption in the body’s normal equilibrium  Vaccines  Viral diseases cannot be treated by antibiotics
  • 30. The Immune System  The primary defense against pathogens  Non-specific defense – First line of defense – Skin, mucus, sweat, tears Goal is to keep pathogens out of body – Second line of defense – The inflammatory response Reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection (pus and inflammation) Phagocytes (WBCs) engulf the pathogens (causing swollen lymph nodes, fever)
  • 31. The Inflammatory Response Skin Wound Bacteria enter the wound Phagocytes move into the area and engulf the bacteria and cell debris Capillary Section 40-2
  • 32. The Immune System Cont. Specific Defense  An attack of the immune system against one particular pathogen  Two main types of specific defenses – Humoral Immunity – Cell-mediated Immunity
  • 33. Humoral Immunity  B-cells (B-lymphocytes) – made in bone marrow  B-cells recognize antigens (a substance recognized as foreign by the body)  B-cells develop into – Plasma cells that release antibodies (proteins that recognize and bind to antigens – and destroy them) – Memory B-cells (remember the antigen and can attack quickly the next time it invades)
  • 34. Section 40-2 Humoral Immunity
  • 35. Cell-mediated Immunity  T-cells (T lymphocytes) – made in the thymus  Killer T-cells - attack and lyse pathogens, cause body to reject transplants  Helper T-cells - direct the immune response  Mast cells - produce histamines that cause swelling and congestion (allergies = over active mast cells)
  • 36. Macrophage T Cell Helper T Cell Killer T Cell Infected Cell Antigens are displayed on surface of macrophage T cell binds to activated macrophage T cell, activated by macrophage, becomes a helper T cell Helper T cell activates killer T cells and B cells Killer T cells bind to infected cells, disrupting their cell membranes and destroying them Section 40-2 Cell-mediated Immune Response
  • 37. Types of Immunity  Inborn immunity – – Present at birth – Inherited characteristic – permanent
  • 38. Types of Immunity cont.  Active – Natural By infection and production of antibodies Long lasting and permanent – Artificial Injection of vaccines Several years to permanent  Passive – Natural Transfer of antibodies from mom to infant 6 months – 1 year – Artificial Injection of serum containing antibodies 2 weeks – 1 month Acquired Immunity
  • 39. Immune System Disorders  Allergies – Allergy-causing antigens enter the body and attach to mast cells (the mast cells initiate the inflammatory response) – The mast cells release histamines which increase the flow of blood and fluids to surrounding area and increase mucus production
  • 40. Immune System Disorders Cont.  Autoimmune diseases – when the body attacks its own cells – Ex. Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS), and rheumatoid arthritis
  • 41. Immune System Disorders Cont.  Immunodeficiency Disease – Ex. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)  AIDS – Caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) – HIV is a retrovirus (carries its genetic information on RNA, not DNA) – Attacks helper T-cells
  • 42. AIDS  Modes of Transmission – Sexual intercourse with a person with HIV – Sharing of needles in IV drug use with an HIV infected person – Blood transfusions that contain HIV – Mother to newborn - during birth or breast feeding
  • 43. AIDS Cont.  Detection of Virus – Antibody production by immune system  Tests do not look for the virus but antibodies – Monitor Helper T-cell numbers (detects start of AIDS)  Effects of Virus – Destroys body’s ability to fight of disease  Helper T-cells cannot coordinate B-cells and T-cells to fight disease  Antibody production is greatly reduced  Pathogens go unrecognized – Opportunistic diseases weaken or kill person  Rare types of cancers and fungal infections
  • 44. AIDS Cont.  Treatment / Prevention – No cure or vaccine – Drugs can slow the grow of the virus - slowing onset of AIDS – Avoid exposure to HIV
  • 45. NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases
  • 46. AIDSin Adolescents and Adults, by Sex and Age at Diagnosis, Reported in 2001 , United States 13-19 years N= 372 N= 1,461 20-24 years Male Female 59% 41% N= 40,271 ≥25 years 75% 25% 52% 48% AIDSin Adolescents and Adults, by Sex and Age at Diagnosis, Reported in 2001 , United States 13-19 years N= 372 N= 1,461 20-24 years Male Female 59% 41% N= 40,271 ≥25 years 75% 25% 52% 48%
  • 47. Required Pediatric only HIV Infection* and AIDSin 13- to 19-Year-Olds Reported in 2001 0 HIV AIDS NJ DE MD DC CT RI MA N= 1166 N= 372 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 5 2 1 0 4 3 2 3 7 12 3 2 6 0 0 5 9 13 0 11 2 4 1 2 7 11 0 1 0 1 12 17 11 5 15 10 33 22 11 40 27 54 27 1 2 0 200 22 40 27 36 8 1 4 3 6 205 9 4 3 26 14 16 10 12 270 119 53 2 11 Guam U.S. Pacific Islands U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico * For areas with confidential HIV infection surveillance. Includes 24 persons who were residents of areas without HIV infection surveillance but who were reported by areas with HIV infection surveillance and 5 persons with an unknown state of residence. ** HIV cases reported by patient name Confidential HIV Reporting** Required Pediatric only HIV Infection* and AIDSin 13- to 19-Year-Olds Reported in 2001 0 HIV AIDS NJ DE MD DC CT RI MA N= 1166 N= 372 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 5 2 1 0 4 3 2 3 7 12 3 2 6 0 0 5 9 13 0 11 2 4 1 2 7 11 0 1 0 1 12 17 11 5 15 10 33 22 11 40 27 54 27 1 2 0 200 22 40 27 36 8 1 4 3 6 205 9 4 3 26 14 16 10 12 270 119 53 2 11 Guam U.S. Pacific Islands U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico * For areas with confidential HIV infection surveillance. Includes 24 persons who were residents of areas without HIV infection surveillance but who were reported by areas with HIV infection surveillance and 5 persons with an unknown state of residence. ** HIV cases reported by patient name Confidential HIV Reporting**

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