AIDS: A Four Letter Word
Unit 4
Viruses, Bacteria,
and Immunology
Bacteria
 Unicellular prokaryotes (lack a nucleus or other
membrane-bound organelles)
 Contain a cell wall
 Bacteria ar...
Section 18-3
Concept Map
are characterized by
such as
and differing which place them in
which coincides withwhich coincide...
DOMAIN
KINGDOM
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
MODE OF
NUTRITION
EXAMPLES
Bacteria
Eubacteria
Prokaryote
Cell wa...
Section 19-1
Concept Map
are classified into the kingdoms of
live in harsh
environments such as
include a variety of
lifes...
Eubacteria vs. Archaebacteria
 Eubacteria
– Exist almost everywhere (fresh water, salt water,
land, humans)
– Have cell w...
Peptidoglycan
Cell
wall
Cell
membrane
Ribosome
Flagellum DNA Pili
The Structure of a Eubacterium (Escherichia coli)
Images taken from:
www.mirandacastro.com/
articles/images/bacilli.jpg,
www.bio.davidson.edu/.../
restricted/bacilli.jpg,
b...
Images taken from:
www.astrosurf.com/lombry/
Bio/cellule-cocci.jpg,
www.aae.org/ images/cocci.gif
Shapes of Bacteria
2. Co...
These images were taken from:
www.uic.edu/classes/
bios/bios100/labs/celllab.htm,
www.dmu.edu/
microbiology/bacteria.htm
S...
Metabolism
Energy
 Heterotrophs – obtain energy from organic molecules
(eat)
 Autotrophs – make their own food from inor...
Metabolism
Respiration
 Obligate aerobes – organisms that require a
constant supply of oxygen
 Obligate anaerobes – orga...
The following image was taken
from: fig.cox.miami.edu/.../
150/mitosis/fission.jpg
Growth and Reproduction
1. Binary fissi...
This following image was taken
from:
fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/
150/gene/sf9x3box.jpg
Growth and Reproduction
2. Conjuga...
Conjugation
This image was taken from:
fruit.naro.affrc.go.jp/.
../micro/AJ007.gif
Growth and Reproduction
3. Spore formation
– The fo...
The Importance of Bacteria
 Bacteria act as decomposers
– by breaking down dead organic matter into
important materials t...
The Importance of Bacteria Cont.
 Human uses of bacteria . . .
– Food and beverage production
 Canning (temperature and ...
Viruses
 Viruses are made of . . .
– Non-cellular particle (no organelles)
– Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
– Protein (out...
Virus Structures
T4 Bacteriophage
Tobacco Mosaic
Virus
Influenza
Virus
Head
Tail
sheath
DNA
Tail
fiber
RNA
Capsid
Surface
...
Viral Infections
 A virus binds to specific proteins on the host
cell’s surface
 Two types of viral infections
– Lytic i...
Lytic Infection vs. Lysogenic Infection
Lytic Infection
 A virus enters the cell, makes copies of itself,
and causes the ...
Lytic and Lysogenic Infections
Disease
 Disease – any change, other than injury, that
disrupts the normal functions of the body
 Symptoms – any change ...
The pathogen
should always be
found in the body
of a sick
organism and
should not be
found in a
healthy one.
The pathogen
...
Spread of Disease
 Diseases can be spread through
– Physical contact
– Contaminated food and water
– Infected animals
Bacterial Disease
 Some common bacterial diseases include
bacterial meningitis, lyme disease, and strep
throat
 How do b...
Bacterial Diseases Cont.
 Vaccines can prevent bacterial diseases
– The weakened or killed pathogen is injected into the
...
Viral Diseases
 Common viral diseases include chickenpox,
colds, flu, warts, West Nile, and AIDS
 How do viruses cause d...
The Immune System
 The primary defense against pathogens
 Non-specific defense
– First line of defense – Skin, mucus, sw...
The Inflammatory Response
Skin
Wound
Bacteria enter
the wound
Phagocytes move into the
area and engulf the bacteria
and ce...
The Immune System Cont.
Specific Defense
 An attack of the immune system against one
particular pathogen
 Two main types...
Humoral Immunity
 B-cells (B-lymphocytes) – made in bone
marrow
 B-cells recognize antigens (a substance
recognized as f...
Section 40-2
Humoral Immunity
Cell-mediated Immunity
 T-cells (T lymphocytes) – made in the thymus
 Killer T-cells - attack and lyse pathogens, cause
...
Macrophage
T Cell
Helper
T Cell
Killer
T Cell
Infected Cell
Antigens are displayed on
surface of macrophage
T cell binds t...
Types of Immunity
 Inborn immunity –
– Present at birth
– Inherited characteristic
– permanent
Types of Immunity cont.
 Active
– Natural
By infection and
production of
antibodies
Long lasting and
permanent
– Artifi...
Immune System Disorders
 Allergies
– Allergy-causing antigens enter the body and attach
to mast cells (the mast cells ini...
Immune System Disorders Cont.
 Autoimmune diseases
– when the body attacks its own cells
– Ex. Type I diabetes, multiple ...
Immune System Disorders Cont.
 Immunodeficiency Disease
– Ex. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
 AIDS
– Caused ...
AIDS
 Modes of Transmission
– Sexual intercourse with a person with HIV
– Sharing of needles in IV drug use with an HIV
i...
AIDS Cont.
 Detection of Virus
– Antibody production by immune system
 Tests do not look for the virus but antibodies
– ...
AIDS Cont.
 Treatment / Prevention
– No cure or vaccine
– Drugs can slow the grow of the virus - slowing
onset of AIDS
– ...
NumberofCases
Female
Male
AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of
Report, through December 2001, United States
N=...
AIDSin Adolescents and Adults, by Sex and Age at
Diagnosis, Reported in 2001 , United States
13-19 years
N= 372 N= 1,461
2...
Required
Pediatric only
HIV Infection* and AIDSin 13- to 19-Year-Olds
Reported in 2001
0
HIV AIDS
NJ
DE
MD
DC
CT
RI
MA
N= ...
Unit 4
Unit 4
Unit 4
Unit 4
Unit 4
Unit 4
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Unit 4

  1. 1. AIDS: A Four Letter Word Unit 4 Viruses, Bacteria, and Immunology
  2. 2. Bacteria  Unicellular prokaryotes (lack a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles)  Contain a cell wall  Bacteria are separated into two kingdoms – Eubacteria – Archaebacteria
  3. 3. Section 18-3 Concept Map are characterized by such as and differing which place them in which coincides withwhich coincides with which place them in which is subdivided into Living Things Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria Eukaryotic cellsProkaryotic cells Important characteristics Cell wall structures Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia
  4. 4. DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in some; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals Eukarya Classification of Living Things Section 18-3 Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains
  5. 5. Section 19-1 Concept Map are classified into the kingdoms of live in harsh environments such as include a variety of lifestyles such as Bacteria Eubacteria Archaebacteria Infecting large organisms Thick mudLiving in soil Animal digestive tracts Salty lakes Hot springs
  6. 6. Eubacteria vs. Archaebacteria  Eubacteria – Exist almost everywhere (fresh water, salt water, land, humans) – Have cell walls made of peptidoglycan (a carbohydrate)  Archaebacteria – Many live in extremely harsh environments – Have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan – May be the ancestors of eukaryotes
  7. 7. Peptidoglycan Cell wall Cell membrane Ribosome Flagellum DNA Pili The Structure of a Eubacterium (Escherichia coli)
  8. 8. Images taken from: www.mirandacastro.com/ articles/images/bacilli.jpg, www.bio.davidson.edu/.../ restricted/bacilli.jpg, biology.clc.uc.edu/.../ bacilli_P7060990.jpg Shapes of Bacteria 1. Bacilli (Rod-shaped)
  9. 9. Images taken from: www.astrosurf.com/lombry/ Bio/cellule-cocci.jpg, www.aae.org/ images/cocci.gif Shapes of Bacteria 2. Cocci (Spherical-shaped)
  10. 10. These images were taken from: www.uic.edu/classes/ bios/bios100/labs/celllab.htm, www.dmu.edu/ microbiology/bacteria.htm Shapes of Bacteria 3. Spirilla (Spiral and corkscrew-shaped)
  11. 11. Metabolism Energy  Heterotrophs – obtain energy from organic molecules (eat)  Autotrophs – make their own food from inorganic molecules – Photoautotroph – uses the sun to make organic compounds – Chemoautotrophs – uses the energy from chemical reactions to make organic compounds  Saprophytic – live of dead or decaying organic matter – decomposers
  12. 12. Metabolism Respiration  Obligate aerobes – organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen  Obligate anaerobes – organisms that do NOT require oxygen  Facultative anaerobes – organisms that can survive with or without oxygen
  13. 13. The following image was taken from: fig.cox.miami.edu/.../ 150/mitosis/fission.jpg Growth and Reproduction 1. Binary fission – DNA replicates and bacterium divides in half; produces two identical daughter cells - asexual reproduction
  14. 14. This following image was taken from: fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/ 150/gene/sf9x3box.jpg Growth and Reproduction 2. Conjugation – The exchange of genetic information through a hollow bridge – Sexual reproduction
  15. 15. Conjugation
  16. 16. This image was taken from: fruit.naro.affrc.go.jp/. ../micro/AJ007.gif Growth and Reproduction 3. Spore formation – The formation of spores during harsh conditions – Remain dormant until conditions are better
  17. 17. The Importance of Bacteria  Bacteria act as decomposers – by breaking down dead organic matter into important materials that are released into the soil  Bacteria act as nitrogen fixers – Rhizobium bacteria convert nitrogen gas into a form plants can use (nitrogen cycle)
  18. 18. The Importance of Bacteria Cont.  Human uses of bacteria . . . – Food and beverage production  Canning (temperature and pressure) – Oil spill clean up – Remove waste products and poisons from water – Mine minerals from the ground
  19. 19. Viruses  Viruses are made of . . . – Non-cellular particle (no organelles) – Genetic material (DNA or RNA) – Protein (outer coat or capsid) – Example - bacteriophage
  20. 20. Virus Structures T4 Bacteriophage Tobacco Mosaic Virus Influenza Virus Head Tail sheath DNA Tail fiber RNA Capsid Surface proteins Membrane envelope RNA Capsid proteins Section 19-2
  21. 21. Viral Infections  A virus binds to specific proteins on the host cell’s surface  Two types of viral infections – Lytic infection – Lysogenic infection
  22. 22. Lytic Infection vs. Lysogenic Infection Lytic Infection  A virus enters the cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst Lysogenic Infection  A virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell  The viral DNA replicates with the host cell’s DNA
  23. 23. Lytic and Lysogenic Infections
  24. 24. Disease  Disease – any change, other than injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body  Symptoms – any change in the body as a result of disease  Pathogen – a disease-causing agent – Examples: bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoans  Germ theory of disease – infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs
  25. 25. The pathogen should always be found in the body of a sick organism and should not be found in a healthy one. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in the laboratory in a pure culture. When purified pathogens are placed in a new host, they should cause the same disease that infected the host. The very same pathogen should be reisolated from the second host. And it should be the same as the original pathogen. No pathogen Suspected pathogen Suspected pathogen Injection of organisms from pure culture Pathogen Dead mouse Dead mouse Dead mouse Healthy mouse Healthy mouse Suspected pathogen grown in pure culture. Section 40-1 Koch’s Postulates: rules used to identify the cause of a disease
  26. 26. Spread of Disease  Diseases can be spread through – Physical contact – Contaminated food and water – Infected animals
  27. 27. Bacterial Disease  Some common bacterial diseases include bacterial meningitis, lyme disease, and strep throat  How do bacteria produce disease? – Use cells for food (ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis) – Release toxins into body (ex. Streptococcus)
  28. 28. Bacterial Diseases Cont.  Vaccines can prevent bacterial diseases – The weakened or killed pathogen is injected into the body  Antibiotics can be used to attack and destroy bacteria once it invades the body – Block growth and reproduction of bacteria – Examples – penicillin and tetracycline
  29. 29. Viral Diseases  Common viral diseases include chickenpox, colds, flu, warts, West Nile, and AIDS  How do viruses cause disease? – Attack and destroy certain cells – Causes a disruption in the body’s normal equilibrium  Vaccines  Viral diseases cannot be treated by antibiotics
  30. 30. The Immune System  The primary defense against pathogens  Non-specific defense – First line of defense – Skin, mucus, sweat, tears Goal is to keep pathogens out of body – Second line of defense – The inflammatory response Reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection (pus and inflammation) Phagocytes (WBCs) engulf the pathogens (causing swollen lymph nodes, fever)
  31. 31. The Inflammatory Response Skin Wound Bacteria enter the wound Phagocytes move into the area and engulf the bacteria and cell debris Capillary Section 40-2
  32. 32. The Immune System Cont. Specific Defense  An attack of the immune system against one particular pathogen  Two main types of specific defenses – Humoral Immunity – Cell-mediated Immunity
  33. 33. Humoral Immunity  B-cells (B-lymphocytes) – made in bone marrow  B-cells recognize antigens (a substance recognized as foreign by the body)  B-cells develop into – Plasma cells that release antibodies (proteins that recognize and bind to antigens – and destroy them) – Memory B-cells (remember the antigen and can attack quickly the next time it invades)
  34. 34. Section 40-2 Humoral Immunity
  35. 35. Cell-mediated Immunity  T-cells (T lymphocytes) – made in the thymus  Killer T-cells - attack and lyse pathogens, cause body to reject transplants  Helper T-cells - direct the immune response  Mast cells - produce histamines that cause swelling and congestion (allergies = over active mast cells)
  36. 36. Macrophage T Cell Helper T Cell Killer T Cell Infected Cell Antigens are displayed on surface of macrophage T cell binds to activated macrophage T cell, activated by macrophage, becomes a helper T cell Helper T cell activates killer T cells and B cells Killer T cells bind to infected cells, disrupting their cell membranes and destroying them Section 40-2 Cell-mediated Immune Response
  37. 37. Types of Immunity  Inborn immunity – – Present at birth – Inherited characteristic – permanent
  38. 38. Types of Immunity cont.  Active – Natural By infection and production of antibodies Long lasting and permanent – Artificial Injection of vaccines Several years to permanent  Passive – Natural Transfer of antibodies from mom to infant 6 months – 1 year – Artificial Injection of serum containing antibodies 2 weeks – 1 month Acquired Immunity
  39. 39. Immune System Disorders  Allergies – Allergy-causing antigens enter the body and attach to mast cells (the mast cells initiate the inflammatory response) – The mast cells release histamines which increase the flow of blood and fluids to surrounding area and increase mucus production
  40. 40. Immune System Disorders Cont.  Autoimmune diseases – when the body attacks its own cells – Ex. Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS), and rheumatoid arthritis
  41. 41. Immune System Disorders Cont.  Immunodeficiency Disease – Ex. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)  AIDS – Caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) – HIV is a retrovirus (carries its genetic information on RNA, not DNA) – Attacks helper T-cells
  42. 42. AIDS  Modes of Transmission – Sexual intercourse with a person with HIV – Sharing of needles in IV drug use with an HIV infected person – Blood transfusions that contain HIV – Mother to newborn - during birth or breast feeding
  43. 43. AIDS Cont.  Detection of Virus – Antibody production by immune system  Tests do not look for the virus but antibodies – Monitor Helper T-cell numbers (detects start of AIDS)  Effects of Virus – Destroys body’s ability to fight of disease  Helper T-cells cannot coordinate B-cells and T-cells to fight disease  Antibody production is greatly reduced  Pathogens go unrecognized – Opportunistic diseases weaken or kill person  Rare types of cancers and fungal infections
  44. 44. AIDS Cont.  Treatment / Prevention – No cure or vaccine – Drugs can slow the grow of the virus - slowing onset of AIDS – Avoid exposure to HIV
  45. 45. NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases Female Male AIDS in 13- to 19 -Year-Olds, by Sex and Year of Report, through December 2001, United States N= 4,428 34 35 53 77 126136 181 162 152 578 412 392 398 371 298 311 1993 definition change 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year of Report Before 1985 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 340 372 2000 2001 NumberofCases
  46. 46. AIDSin Adolescents and Adults, by Sex and Age at Diagnosis, Reported in 2001 , United States 13-19 years N= 372 N= 1,461 20-24 years Male Female 59% 41% N= 40,271 ≥25 years 75% 25% 52% 48% AIDSin Adolescents and Adults, by Sex and Age at Diagnosis, Reported in 2001 , United States 13-19 years N= 372 N= 1,461 20-24 years Male Female 59% 41% N= 40,271 ≥25 years 75% 25% 52% 48%
  47. 47. Required Pediatric only HIV Infection* and AIDSin 13- to 19-Year-Olds Reported in 2001 0 HIV AIDS NJ DE MD DC CT RI MA N= 1166 N= 372 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 5 2 1 0 4 3 2 3 7 12 3 2 6 0 0 5 9 13 0 11 2 4 1 2 7 11 0 1 0 1 12 17 11 5 15 10 33 22 11 40 27 54 27 1 2 0 200 22 40 27 36 8 1 4 3 6 205 9 4 3 26 14 16 10 12 270 119 53 2 11 Guam U.S. Pacific Islands U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico * For areas with confidential HIV infection surveillance. Includes 24 persons who were residents of areas without HIV infection surveillance but who were reported by areas with HIV infection surveillance and 5 persons with an unknown state of residence. ** HIV cases reported by patient name Confidential HIV Reporting** Required Pediatric only HIV Infection* and AIDSin 13- to 19-Year-Olds Reported in 2001 0 HIV AIDS NJ DE MD DC CT RI MA N= 1166 N= 372 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 5 2 1 0 4 3 2 3 7 12 3 2 6 0 0 5 9 13 0 11 2 4 1 2 7 11 0 1 0 1 12 17 11 5 15 10 33 22 11 40 27 54 27 1 2 0 200 22 40 27 36 8 1 4 3 6 205 9 4 3 26 14 16 10 12 270 119 53 2 11 Guam U.S. Pacific Islands U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico * For areas with confidential HIV infection surveillance. Includes 24 persons who were residents of areas without HIV infection surveillance but who were reported by areas with HIV infection surveillance and 5 persons with an unknown state of residence. ** HIV cases reported by patient name Confidential HIV Reporting**

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