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STS Biology Unit 8 Animal Diversity
I.  Taxonomy <ul><li>A. Definition - study and science of classification and naming of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Tax...
Section 18-1 Flowchart Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PH...
I.  Taxonomy <ul><li>C. Evolutionary Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
 
II.  6 Kingdoms <ul><li>A. Monera - prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Used to be one kingdom, now it is split int...
 
II.  6 Kingdoms <ul><li>C. Protista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are unicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic or autotrophic <...
 
II. Three Domain System <ul><li>Larger,  more inclusive  than Kingdom, recent addition to taxonomic structure </li></ul><u...
 
III.  Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>A. Porifera = pore-bearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-swimming larva (juvenile) form and ...
 
 
 
III.  Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>C. Platyhelminthes = flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be free-living or parasitic </li...
 
 
III.  Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>E. Annelida - segmented worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmented bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
 
III.  Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>G. Echinodermata - spiny-skinned animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry  - arrange...
Section 28-3 Insects (73%) Noninsect arthropods (12%) Nonarthropod invertebrates (11%) Vertebrates  (4%) Insect Diversity
Section 28-4
Section 26-1 Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Planes of symmetry Plane of symmetry Ventral side Dorsal side Posterior en...
III.  Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>H. Arthropoda - jointed leg animals (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><...
 
 
IV.  Phylogenetic Tree <ul><li>A. Definition - a diagram that displays the evolutionary relationships between different ph...
 
V.  Chordates <ul><li>A.  Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord - internal rigid structure that runs down the do...
Section 30-1 The Generalized Structure of  a Chordate Muscle Tail Anus Pharyngeal   pouches Mouth Dorsal nerve   cord Noto...
V.  Chordates <ul><li>C. Vertebrate Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Jawless Fish (Cephalaspidomorphi -  lampreys ; Myxini...
 
 
V.  Chordates <ul><li>C. Vertebrate Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Osteicthyes ( bony fish  = perch, tuna, bass, eels, s...
Section 30-3 Adult Frog Young Frog Fertilized Eggs Tadpoles Adults are typically ready to breed in about one to two years....
 
 
V.  Chordates <ul><ul><li>5. Reptilia ( reptiles  = snakes, turtles, lizards, alligators) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M...
 
 
 
 
VI.  Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>A. Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills in aquatic organisms </li></ul></ul...
Section 33-3 Double-Loop Circulatory System Single-Loop Circulatory System FISHES MOST REPTILES CROCODILIANS, BIRDS, AND M...
Salamander Lizard Pigeon Primate Nostrils, mouth, and throat Trachea Lung Air sac Vertebrate Lungs
VI.  Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>C. Reproductive Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from external fertiliza...
VI.  Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>E.  Digestive System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The longer or more complicated the ...
Section 33-3 Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Cloaca Crop Gizzard Cecum Rectum Shark Salamander Liza...
 
 
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Unit 08 animal diversity

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  1. 1. STS Biology Unit 8 Animal Diversity
  2. 2. I. Taxonomy <ul><li>A. Definition - study and science of classification and naming of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>B. Taxonomic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Kingdom - most diverse group, only a few basic similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Species - least diverse group, many specific shared characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Philip Came Over From Geneva Switzerland </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Section 18-1 Flowchart Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Abert squirrel Coral snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Section 18-1
  4. 4. I. Taxonomy <ul><li>C. Evolutionary Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA analysis places organisms with similar DNA sequence within the same groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Naming System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Binomial nomenclature - 2 names comprised of genus and species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Names are in Latin (Why?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rana clamitans , Quercus alba, Homo sapiens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Developed by Carolus Linnaeus </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. II. 6 Kingdoms <ul><li>A. Monera - prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Used to be one kingdom, now it is split into 2 separate kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-celled, prokaryotic, cell walls w/o peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in harsh environments - hot springs, thermovents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methanobacterium, Thermoplasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-celled, prokaryotic, cell walls w/ peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most bacteria E.coli, Streptococcus </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. II. 6 Kingdoms <ul><li>C. Protista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are unicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic or autotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paramecium, amoeba, algae, euglena </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular or multicellular, eukaryotic, cell walls of chitin, decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast, mushrooms, mold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Plantae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic, cell wall of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses, ferns, flowering plants, pine trees, oak trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F. Animalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, no cell walls, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invertebrates, birds, mammals, reptiles, sponges </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. II. Three Domain System <ul><li>Larger, more inclusive than Kingdom, recent addition to taxonomic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Based on comparing rRNA subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular, prokaryotic, corresponds to Kingdom Eubacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular, prokaryotic, corresponds to Kingdom Archaebacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Eukaraya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of all organisms that have a nucleus, includes Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 12. III. Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>A. Porifera = pore-bearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-swimming larva (juvenile) form and sessile (attached) adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic - mostly marine, some freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter feeders - draw in water and trap food particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example = sponges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Cnadaria = stinging-celled animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyps - sessile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medusa - free floating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples = coral, jellyfish, Hydra </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 16. III. Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>C. Platyhelminthes = flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be free-living or parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flattened bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - Planaria , tapeworms, liver flukes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Nematoda - round worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non segmented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some free-living, some parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - heartworm </li></ul></ul>
  10. 19. III. Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>E. Annelida - segmented worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmented bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system - has capillaries connecting arteries and veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - sandworms, earthworms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F. Mollusca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft bodied animals with a hard shell (sometimes absent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are filter feeders - clams Some are fierce predators - squid, octopus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - snail, clam, squid, octopus </li></ul></ul>
  11. 22. III. Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>G. Echinodermata - spiny-skinned animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry - arranged in multiples of 5’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration of body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly marine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - sea stars, sea urchins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H. Arthropoda - jointed leg animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest group of living things ( Almost 75% of all species ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly developed animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense organs - compound eyes, antennae, tympanum (ears) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widely adapted to all habitats </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 23. Section 28-3 Insects (73%) Noninsect arthropods (12%) Nonarthropod invertebrates (11%) Vertebrates (4%) Insect Diversity
  13. 24. Section 28-4
  14. 25. Section 26-1 Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Planes of symmetry Plane of symmetry Ventral side Dorsal side Posterior end Anterior end Body Symmetry
  15. 26. III. Invertebrate Phyla <ul><li>H. Arthropoda - jointed leg animals (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecta = insects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnida = spiders, ticks, scorpions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crustacea = crayfish, lobsters, crabs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myriapoda = centipedes, millipedes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 29. IV. Phylogenetic Tree <ul><li>A. Definition - a diagram that displays the evolutionary relationships between different phyla of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>B. Examples of relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body plan - presence and type of body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomate - no body cavities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomate - cavity but no endodermal lining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coelomate - true body cavity (lined with endodermal tissue) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protostomes - mouth develops first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterostomes - anus develops first </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 31. V. Chordates <ul><li>A. Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord - internal rigid structure that runs down the dorsal side of the animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal Gill Slits - sometime during development the animal possesses slits around the neck region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal nerve cord - major nerve cord that travels along the dorsal side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Evolutionary Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very active animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced structures for breathing (gills, lungs), closed circulatory systems, endoskeletons, switch from ectothermic to endothermic </li></ul></ul>
  18. 32. Section 30-1 The Generalized Structure of a Chordate Muscle Tail Anus Pharyngeal pouches Mouth Dorsal nerve cord Notochord
  19. 33. V. Chordates <ul><li>C. Vertebrate Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Jawless Fish (Cephalaspidomorphi - lampreys ; Myxini = hagfish ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouths w/o true jaws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eel-like bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No scales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Chondricthyes (cartilaginous fish = sharks, rays , skates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True jaw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoskeleton of cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gill slits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small scales w/ spines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 36. V. Chordates <ul><li>C. Vertebrate Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Osteicthyes ( bony fish = perch, tuna, bass, eels, sea horse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bony endoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swim bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gill cover (operculum) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Amphibia (amphibians = frogs, salamanders, newts, toads) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juveniles develop in water (not all) - possess gills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moist skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic or terrestrial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial forms use lungs, skin and/or lining of mouth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 37. Section 30-3 Adult Frog Young Frog Fertilized Eggs Tadpoles Adults are typically ready to breed in about one to two years. Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later. Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. The Life Cycle of a Frog
  22. 40. V. Chordates <ul><ul><li>5. Reptilia ( reptiles = snakes, turtles, lizards, alligators) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly terrestrial (some marine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry scale-covered skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Aves (birds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feathered bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scales on legs and feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wings (most can fly) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Mammalia ( mammals ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat under the skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hair covered bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 45. VI. Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>A. Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills in aquatic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swim bladder believed to be the original lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs in terrestrial animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds have a double air circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish have a 2 chambered heart with a single loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 chambers = ventricle and atrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart to gills to body to heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians/Reptiles have a 3 chambered heart with a double loop (second loop is needed for lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria and 1 ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart to lungs to heart to body to heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds/mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 atria and 2 ventricles = true double loop pathway </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 46. Section 33-3 Double-Loop Circulatory System Single-Loop Circulatory System FISHES MOST REPTILES CROCODILIANS, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS The Circulatory Systems of Vertebrates
  25. 47. Salamander Lizard Pigeon Primate Nostrils, mouth, and throat Trachea Lung Air sac Vertebrate Lungs
  26. 48. VI. Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>C. Reproductive Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from external fertilization (fish / amphibians) to internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloaca = urogenital opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oviparous - egg laying, hatches outside of body (ovi = egg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viviparous - “live” birth, nourished w/in body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparous - egg hatches w/in body and young crawl out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Brain Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend (fish to mammals) from well developed sense of smell to cerebral development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum becomes more well developed </li></ul></ul>
  27. 49. VI. Trends in Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>E. Digestive System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The longer or more complicated the system the longer it has for digestion </li></ul></ul>
  28. 50. Section 33-3 Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Cloaca Crop Gizzard Cecum Rectum Shark Salamander Lizard Pigeon Cow The Digestive Systems of Vertebrates

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