Epidemiology

1,245
-1

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Thanx!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,245
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Epidemiology

  1. 1. MICROBE-HUMAN INTERACTIONS By: Mary Jean D. Somcio, RMT 1
  2. 2. GREEN FIEND Definition Invasion (entry,fixation) and multiplication of microbes in body tissues, which may be clinically unapparent or result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen antibody response. All infections not results in Infectious disease.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 2 GREENFIEND
  3. 3. GREEN FIEND Infection a condition in which pathogenic microbes penetrate host defenses, enter tissues & multiply Disease any deviation from health, disruption of a tissue or organ caused by microbes or their products1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 2 GREENFIEND
  4. 4. GREEN FIEND 41234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  5. 5. GREEN FIEND Based on Occurrence: a).Primary infection: Infection is first time with a microbe. b).Reinfection: Subsequent infections with same microbe. c).Secondary infection: Infection followed by lowered Host immunity by preexisting disease.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 4 GREENFIEND
  6. 6. GREEN FIEND d).Focal infection: Localized infection with generalized symptoms. Ex: Appendicitis, Tonsillitis e).Cross infection: New infection in a patient from another host or source. f).Nosocomial infection: If cross infections occur in hospitalized individual (Hospital acquired infection). 51234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND
  7. 7. GREEN FIEND g). Iatrogenic infection: Infections by means of Investigative &therapeutic procedures. 61234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND
  8. 8. GREEN FIEND Based on source: Based on clinical effects: Inapparent (Sub clinical): Endogenous: No S/S in spite of • From Normal infection. flora. Atypical infection: Absence of typical Exogenous: manifestations. • Another Latent infection: individual. Followed by infection- • Environment. Microbe retain in tissues. Starts proliferation with lowered immunity.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 7 GREENFIEND
  9. 9. GREEN FIEND Types of carrier:1.HUMAN BEINGS Depending on origin:Commonest source. A. Healthy carrier B. Convalescent carrier C. Contact carrier: Infective agent Acquires pathogen from patient. transferred either from D. Paradoxical carrier. Patient or from Acquires pathogen Carrier. from another Carrier.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 8 GREENFIEND
  10. 10. Based on the duration of GREEN FIENDcarriage …… 2. INSECTSA. Temporary carrier: VECTOR. Microbes harbors not more than 6 months. a). Mechanical vectors. b). Biological vectors. “ Arthropod borneB.Chronic carrier: diseases ” Microbes harbors several years or even for life.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 9 GREENFIEND
  11. 11. GREEN FIEND 3).ANIMALS: Infectious diseases transmitted from animals to man. ZOONOSES. a).Bacterial: Leptospira, plague from Rat. b).Viral : Rabies from dog. c).Protozoa: Leishmaniasis from dog. d).Helminths : Hydatid disease from dog Tape worms : Cattle , Pig. e).Fungal: Zoophilic dermatophytes - Dog.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 10 GREENFIEND
  12. 12. GREEN FIEND • SOIL & WATER Soil : Spores of Tetanus bacilli Histoplasma and Nocardia spp. Water: Cholera, H A V , H E V, Typhoid etc. 8) FOOD Contaminated food. Ex: Staphylococci, Cl. botulinum.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 11 GREENFIEND
  13. 13. GREEN FIENDLocalized infection – microbesenter the body and remainsconfined to a specific tissueSystemic infection – infectionspreads to several sites andtissue fluids usually in thebloodstreamFocal infection – wheninfectious agent breaks loosefrom a local infection and iscarried to other tissues1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  14. 14. GREEN FIEND Mixed infection – several microbes grow simultaneously at the infection site – polymicrobial Primary infection – initial infection Secondary infection – another infection by a different microbe Acute infection – comes on rapidly, with severe but short-lived effects Chronic infections – progress and persist over a long period of time1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  15. 15. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  16. 16. GREEN FIEND Diseases can be caused by many factors: infection, genetics, degeneration, and others. Koch’s Postulates Developed by Robert Koch in 1877 to establish cause of infectious diseases: anthrax and TB.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  17. 17. GREEN FIEND Koch’s Postulates: 1. Same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease. 2. Pathogen must be isolated from diseased host and grown in pure culture. 3. Pathogen from pure culture must cause disease when inoculated in healthy, susceptible laboratory animal. 4. Pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animal and shown to be the original organism.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  18. 18. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  19. 19. GREEN FIEND Koch’s principles do not apply to all diseases. 3.Some microbes cannot be cultured in artificial media. Treponema pallidum (syphillis) Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) Ricketsias, chlamydias, and viruses only multiply within cells. 4.One disease may involve several different pathogens. Diarrhea Pneumonia Meningitis Peritonitis Nephritis1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  20. 20. GREEN FIEND 1. Some pathogens may cause several different diseases. Streptococcus pyogenes: Scarlet fever, sore throat, skin infections, bone infections, etc. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Causes disease of lungs, skin, bones, and internal organs.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  21. 21. GREEN FIEND Diseases alter normal body function and/or structure. Symptoms: Subjective feelings not obvious to an observer. Example: Pain and malaise. Signs: a characteristic of a disease that can be observed by examining the patient Example: swelling, redness, rashes, coughing, pus, runny nose, vomiting, paralysis.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  22. 22. GREEN FIEND Syndrome: a combination of signs and symptoms that occur together and are indicative of a particular disease or abnormal condition Example: pain, shortness of breath, nausea, sore throat, headache Sequelae: even after recovery, some diseases leave after-effects Example: valve damage1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  23. 23. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  24. 24. GREEN FIEND Communicable Diseases: Spread from one host to another, directly or indirectly. Example: Tuberculosis, herpes, flu, AIDS, chickenpox, mumps, polio, and hepatitis. Contagious Diseases: Spread easily from one person to another. Example: Chickenpox and measles. Noncommunicable Diseases: Not spread from one host to another. Caused by microbes that live outside the body or by opportunistic pathogens that live inside the body. Example: Tetanus, botulism, and yeast infections.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  25. 25. GREEN FIEND Incubation period is the time between infection and appearance of signs and symptoms Prodromal phase is a short period during which nonspecific, often mild, symptoms such as malaise and headache Prodrome is a symptom indicating the onset of a disease1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  26. 26. GREEN FIEND Invasive phase is period during which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease Decline phase is the period of illness during which host defenses and effects of treatment overcome the pathogen Convalescent period tissues are repaired, healing takes place, and body regains strength and recovers1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  27. 27. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  28. 28. GREEN FIEND • Diseases that are acquired or developed during a hospital stay • From surgical procedures, equipment, personnel, and exposure to drug-resistant microorganisms • 2 to 4 million cases/year in U.S. with approximately 90,000 deaths • Most commonly involve urinary tract, respiratory tract, and surgical incisions • Most common organisms involved: Gram-negative intestinal flora – E. coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  29. 29. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  30. 30. GREEN FIEND EPIDEMIOLOGY 301234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  31. 31. GREEN FIEND The study of the frequency and distribution of disease and health-related factors in human populations Surveillance – collecting, analyzing, and reporting data on rates of occurrence, mortality, morbidity and transmission of infections Reportable, notifiable diseases must be reported to authorities 311234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  32. 32. GREEN FIEND Mortality rate – the total number of deaths in a population due to a certain disease Morbidity rate – number of people afflicted with a certain disease1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  33. 33. GREEN FIEND Prevalence – total number of existing cases with respect to the entire population usually represented by a percentage of the population Incidence – measures the number of new cases over a certain time period, as compared with the general healthy population 331234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  34. 34. GREEN FIEND1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  35. 35. GREEN FIEND Endemic – disease that exhibits a relatively steady frequency over a long period of time in a particular geographic locale Sporadic – when occasional cases are reported at irregular intervals1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  36. 36. GREEN FIEND Epidemic – when prevalence of a disease is increasing beyond what is expected Pandemic – epidemic across continents1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  37. 37. GREEN FIEND1. Depending on location: Superficial a). Localized Deep seated. b). Generalized. Bacteremia : Septicemia : Bacteria + Toxins. Pyemia : Bacteria , Toxins and Multiple abscesses in internal organs.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 26
  38. 38. GREEN FIEND2. Depending on Spread : A. Endemic : Constantly present in a particular area. Ex: Typhoid, Malaria. B. Epidemic : Rapid spread with involving many persons. Ex: Influenza.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 27 GREENFIEND
  39. 39. GREEN FIEND Pandemic: Epidemic , that spreads many parts of the world within a short time. Ex :Influenza, Cholera, Plague, Viral conjunctivitis.4. Prosodemic: Slowly spreading epidemic. Ex : Cerebrospinal fever.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  40. 40. GREEN FIENDCenters for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) in Atlanta, GA – principal governmentagency responsible for keeping track ofinfectious diseases nationwideResearch Institute for Tropical Medicine(RITM) - conduct researches to prevent and tocontrol occurring tropical and other infectiousdiseases in the Philippines.1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND 28
  41. 41. GREEN FIEND BE AWARE of INFECTIONS & INFECTIOUS DISEASES1234 Sample Street, Anytown, St. 12345 GREENFIEND

×