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    Auto dial-er Home security Auto dial-er Home security Document Transcript

    • 1AProject report on“Auto Dialer Home Security”Submitted toRajasthan Technical University, KotaIn Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree ofBachelor of TechnologyIn“Electronics & Communication Engineering”2010-2011Submitted by Supervised byVaibhav Jindal “Mr. Gaurav Vijay”Sushil kumar (Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg.)Shray GautamModi Institute of TechnologyNayagaon, Rawatbhata Road, Kota
    • 2Modi Institute of Technology, KotaSession 2010-11CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the Project entitled “Auto Dialer Home Security” has beensubmitted to the Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in“Electronics& Communication Engg.” by following students of Final yearB.Tech.(Electronics & Communication Engineering).Vaibhav jindal (07E1MIECM45P085)Sushil Kumar (07E1MIECM45P082)Shray gautam (07E1MIECM45P078)(Gaurav Vijay) ( R.N.Piplia)HOD(Electronics & Communication Engg ) (Electronics & Communication Engg )Date: May /2011
    • 3ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWith deep esteem and profound respect, We wish to acknowledge mysupervisor, Gaurav Vijay for the valuable guidance We received from his throughformal information, discussion and timely inspiration. He had not only encouragedme throughout this venture but also took great pains in going through themanuscript carefully and suggested correction, which greatly improve the qualityof the text as well as seminar.We would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. R.N.Piplia Head ofElectronics and Communication Engineering, for the encourage and inspiration;he has provided us during the preparation of this seminar.At last but not least, We would like to thank all of them who helped medirectly in my endeavor.Submitted By:Vaibhav Jindal (07E1MIECM45P085)Sushil Kumar (07E1MIECM45P082)Shray Gautam (07E1MIECM45P078)Electronic and CommunicationVIII Semester & Final year
    • 4CHAPTER 1BASIC DESIGN CRITERIAThe basic design criterion involves outlining the actions orfunctions which we want to be implemented and performed by the device. We are also concernedwith expected behavior of the device. These have been out lined as followsi. The circuit should turn ON immediately as soon as it gets an input signal from the sensorunit.ii. Choice of sensors for the sensors unit should be based on our requirements, availability,compatibility and complexity of implementation of them. As for this prototype model wehave used only two sensor for detecting intruder and fire using fire sensors and infraredLEDsiii. A suitable microprocessor should be chosen depending on the security requirements andease of interfacing of various other circuits which are going to be used. Again as for thisprototype we have chosen AT89C2051 microcontroller which is a very versatilemicroprocessor for such proposesiv. Since we want to inform the person on is mobile through gsm modem.v. The circuit should have the provision for the Sending a SMS on the number which isfeeded in the programming.vi. The circuit should have a provision of automatically switching OFF the line after themessage has been transferred.vii. The circuit should be nose resistant error free with minimum delayviii. The manufacturing cost should be kept in mind while designing because since we areworking on a home based application hence should not be to much costlier.ix. The components availability factor should also be kept in, mind while designing meaningthe components required should be easily available , easy to build and easy to test.
    • 51.1 IMPLEMENTATION OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTSA basic functional block diagram of the circuit is shown in fig. This gives an over view ofpossible implementation of previously stated design requirements.HOME SECURITY WITH GSM MODEMMajor Circuit
    • 61.2 Basic components used are:Microcontroller AT89S52GSM ModemOp-Amplifier LM324NVoltage RegulatorSensor unit- Fire & IR Sensor Modules1.3 Basic steps of Action:1. Activation signal from Sensor unit2. Microcontroller interface3. Send a Message by GSM modem.4. Switching OFF the line after the message has been transferred.1.4 SENSOR UNITIn this sensor unit it is our choice, how many sensors’ we use. , In this project we use twoseparate identical circuits for implementing two different sensors the two electronics circuit areused with infra red sensors and fire alarm sensor.
    • 7CHAPTER 22.1 MICROCONTROLLER 2051 CONTROL UNITPin Diagram of 2051 ControllerThe 2051 is a low voltage (2.7V - 6V), high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontrollerwith 2 Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). This device iscompatible with the industry standard 8051 instruction set and pin out. The 2051 is a powerfulmicrocomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embeddedcontrol applications. The 2051 provides the following features: 2 Kbytes of Flash 128 bytes of RAM 15 I/O lines Two16-bit timer/counters Five vector, two-level interrupt architecture Full duplex serial port Precision analog comparator On chip oscillator and clock circuitry
    • 8In addition, the 2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequencyand supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU whileallowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. ThePower Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chipfunctions until the next hardware reset.Microcontroller 2051 is characterized with negative triggering. The input in the form ofnegative pulses from the two sensor circuits are used to trigger the microcontroller .The inputfrom the Fire sensor is send to the Pin no 6 and input for the Infrared sensor is send to the Pin no3 .One buzzer is connected to the pin no 17 (Port p1.5) This buzzer is turned “ON” when circuitsenses an input from the input sensors. After the Microcontroller senses the input it performsthree functions with a definite time delay in between each functions.Pin DescriptionVCCSupply voltage.GNDGround.Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal pullups. P1.0 andP1.1 require external pullups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and thenegative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1output buffers can sink 20 Ma and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s are written to Port 1pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs and are externallypulled low, they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups.Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and program verification.Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bidirectional I/O pins with internal pullups. P3.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a generalpurpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA. When 1s are written to Port 3 pinsthey are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins thatare externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 alsoserves the functions of various special features of the AT89C2051 as listed below:
    • 9Port Pin Alternate FunctionsP3.0 RXD (serial input port)P3.1 TXD (serial output port)P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and programming verification.RST Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the RST pinhigh for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. Each machine cycletakes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operatingcircuit.XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.Oscillator CharacteristicsXTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifierwhich can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartzcrystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source,XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are norequirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internalclocking circuitry is through a divide by- two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage highand Low time specifications must be observed.2.2 GSM MODEMThe GSM net used by cell phones provides a low cost, long range, wirelesscommunication channel for applications that need connectivity rather than high data rates.Machinery such as industrial refrigerators and freezers, HVAC, vending machines, vehicleservice etc. could benefit from being connected to a GSM system.
    • 10Take a given example. A garage offers a very special package to their customers. Based on themechanics knowledge and the given vehicle, tailored service intervals can be specified. A part ofthe service agreement is installation of a GSM modem in the vehicle. An onboard serviceapplication can then notify the garage when the vehicle approaches its service interval. Thegarage will schedule an appointment and inform the customer.The customer will benefit from a reliable and well-serviced vehicle at a minimum cost. Thegarage on the other hand can provide excellent customer support, vehicle statistics, efficientwork scheduling, and minimum stocks. This application note describes how to use an AVR tocontrol a GSM modem in a cellular phone. The interface between modem and host is a textualprotocol called Hayes AT-Commands. These commands enable phone setup, dialing, textmessaging etc.GSM ModemTheory of OperationThe protocol used by GSM modems for setup and control is based on the Hayes ATCommand set. The GSM modem specific commands are adapted to the services offered by aGSM modem such as: text messaging, calling a given Phone number, deleting memory locationsetc. Since the main objective for this application note is to show how to send and receive text
    • 11messages, only a subset of the AT-Command set needs to be implemented. The EuropeanTelecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) GSM 07.05 defines the AT-Command interfacefor GSM compatible modems. From this document some selected commands are chosen, andpresented briefly in this section. This command subset will enable the modem to send andreceive SMS messages. For further details, please consult GSM 07.05.Connection DiagramBlock DiagramAT-Command setThe following section describes the AT-Command set. The commands can be tried out byconnecting a GSM modem to one of the PC’s COM ports. Type in the test command, adding CR+ LF (Carriage return + Line feed = rn) before executing. The following AT commands areused
    • 12Command DescriptionAT Check if serial interface and GSM modem is working.ATE0 Turn echo off, less traffic on serial line.AT+CNMI Display of new incoming SMS.AT+CPMS Selection of SMS memory.AT+CMGF SMS string format, how they are compressed.AT+CMGR Read new message from a given memory location.AT+CMGS Send message to a given recipient.AT+CMGD Delete message.Interfacing the GSM modem from a PCAll the commands are in the above tableHardware setup and communication settingsTo test the available modem and how it responds to AT-Commands, connect it to a PCsCOM port. This application note assumes that the phone will be connected using a RS232 datacable, though IrDA® could be used if available.With the phone connected, open a terminal application. Communication settings shouldbe found in the modem datasheet. If no such information can be obtained.Now the connected system should enable sending AT-Commands from the terminal window.Test with “AT” to verify this.Connecting the same RS232 data cable to the AVR Butterfly, a suitable adapter has to be made.Outputs from the level-shifter on the AVR Butterfly are routed to a 3x1 header, and not directlycompatible with the RS232 cable.An adapter is easily made out of a male DSUB9 connector and two 2-wire cables(Supplied with the STK500). Pin-out and wiring for such an adapter.
    • 13Communication Setting
    • 14Schematics for serial adapterStatus (AT)The “AT” command is a status request used for testing if a compatible modem is connected andthat the serial interface is working properly.Command Response Comment“AT” “OK” Connected and working.“ERROR” Serial line OK, modem error.2.3 SENSORIn the case of fire sensor we use op amplifier as a main component. Pin no 6 connected tothe sensor. Pin no. 1, 4, 5&11 are connected to Micro-controller AT89C2051’s pin no. 3, 4, 5&10.It should be noted that the input to the microcontroller should by op amplifier.IR SENSORIR sensor consists of two sensors. The first sensor presented is infrared based, while thesecond one uses a red LED and a Cds photocell. The infrared based sensor emits the infraredrays and the second sensor detects the rays which are reflected from the obstacle. A line sensor in
    • 15its simplest form is a sensor capable of detecting a contrast between adjacent surfaces, such asdifference in color, roughness, or magnetic properties, for example. The simplest would bedetecting a difference in color, for example black and white surfaces. Using simpleoptoelectronics, such as infrared photo-transistors, color contrast can easily be detected. Infraredemitter/detectors or photo-transistors are inexpensive and are easy to interface to amicrocontroller.The theory of operation is simple and for brevity, only the basics will be considered. When lightshines on a white surface, most of the incoming light is reflected away from the surface. Incontrast, most of the incoming light is absorbed if the surface is black. Therefore, by shininglight on a surface and having a sensor to detect the amount of light that is reflected, a contrastbetween black and white surfaces can be detected.LIGHT REFLECTING ON A WHITE AND BLACK SURFACEUsing what we know about light and black and white surfaces, the objective of tracking aline is simple can be achieved using the appropriate sensors. In this article, we will consider theuse of three pairs of emitter and detector. The drive configuration for the robot is assumed to bedifferential, i.e., like the tracks of an army tank vehicle. From the figure, the three pairs ofsensors are used to keep the robot on the line as it moves. Each sensor output is monitored todetermine the location of the tape relative to the robot. The main objective of the robot is to
    • 16position itself such that the tape line falls between the two extreme sensors. If the tape line everventures past these two extreme sensors, then the robot corrects by turning in the appropriatedirection to maintain tracking. Two different types of light sensors set up in the configurationshown below will be used for line tracking.IR SENSORFeatures1. High reliability2. Light weight3. Low cost4. Long detection range5. Small size6. Wide spectral response7. Low forward voltageApplications1. Prevention from un authorized access2. Burglar alarm system3. Obstacle detection
    • 174. Home and industrial automation5. Infrared remote control units with high power requirements6. Infrared source for optical counters and card readers7. IR source for smoke detectors.FIRE SENSORThe word thermistor is an acronym for thermal resistor, i.e.., a temperature sensitiveresistor. It is used to detect very small changes in temperature. The variation in temperature isreflected through appreciable variation of the resistance of the device. Thermistor with bothnegative temperature co-efficient (NTC) and positive temperature coefficient (PTC) is available,but NTC thermistors are more common. The negative-temperature coefficient means that theresistance increases with the increase in temperature.NTC THERMISTOR PTC THERMISTORFEATURES1. 0.5°C accuracy guarantee able (at +25°C)2. Rated for full −55° to +150°C range3. Suitable for remote applications
    • 184. Operates from 4 to 30 volts5. Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)6. Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor7. Low cost due to wafer-level trimmingAPPLICATIONS1. Temperature measurement and control2. Liquid level measurement3. Home and industrial automation4. Temperature compensation in electronic circuits5. Time delay measurement2.4 Three-terminal 1A Positive Voltage RegulatorThe MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive regulators are availablein the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in awide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down andsafe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking isprovided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltageregulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages andcurrents.Features• Output Current up to 1A.• Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.• Thermal Overload Protection.• Short Circuit Protection.• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.
    • 19Positive Voltage Controller LM7805Positive Voltage Controller (LM7805)
    • 20
    • 212.5 OP-AMPLIFIER (LM324N)Features2-kV ESD Protection (K-Suffix Devices)Wide Supply Range:Single Supply - 3 V to 32 VDual Supplies - 1.5 V to 16 VLow Supply-Current Drain Independent of Supply Voltage - 0.8 mA.
    • 22Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Includes Ground, Allowing Direct Sensing NearGroundLow Input Bias and Offset Parameters:Input Offset Voltage - 3 mVA Versions- 2 mVInput Offset Current - 2 nAInput Bias Current - 20 nAA Versions . . . 15 nADifferential Input Voltage Range Equal to Maximum-Rated Supply Voltage 32 VOpen-Loop Differential Voltage Amplification- 100 V/mVInternal Frequency CompensationOp-AmplifierThese devices consist of four independent high-gain frequency-compensated operationalamplifiers that are designed specifically to operate from a single supply over a wide range ofvoltages. Operation from split supplies also is possible if the difference between the two suppliesis 3 V to 32 V (3 V to 26 V for the LM2902), and VCC is at least 1.5 V more positive than theinput common-mode voltage. The low supply-current drain is independent of the magnitude ofthe supply voltage.Applications include transducer amplifiers, dc amplification blocks, and all theconventional operational-amplifier circuits that now can be more easily implemented in single-supply-voltage systems. For example, the LM124 can be operated directly from the standard 5-Vsupply that is used in digital systems and easily provides the required interface electronicswithout requiring additional ±15-V supplies.
    • 232.6 DIODEThe simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of p-type semi-conductingmaterial, with contacts provided to connect the p-type & n-type layers to an external circuit. Thisis a Junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material(cathode) and the negative terminal to the n-type material (anode), a large current will flow. Thisis called forward biasing. If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This isbecause under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negativeterminal of the battery and the n-type material will give up its free electrons to the batteryresulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the n-type material has no more electrons.Thus there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased.Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the otherdirection. Power Diodes are used in converting AC current into DC current. In this, current willflow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the otherhalf cycle (reversed biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier that converts AC currentinto pulsating DC current. The signal diodes are used in radio circuits for the detection of radiosignals. Diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage.N PDiode
    • 242.7 RESISTORSResistance is the property of a material offering opposition to current. It is measured inOhms. All conductors represent a certain amount of resistance as no conductor is 100% efficient.To control the electron flow (current) in a predictable manner, we use resistors. Electroniccircuits use calibrated lumped resistance to control the flow of current. Resistances are of twotypes: Fixed and Variable resistors. In fixed resistors, the value is fixed and cannot be variedwhile in a variable resistance it can be varied using a knob.Resistor varieties are of many types:(a) Carbon Composition(b) Wire round and(c) Special types.The resistance values are determined by the color coding. Each resistor has four color stripes.Resistors are of various power ratings that increases with increase in sizeColour CodeBlack 0Brown 1Red 2Orange 3Yellow 4Green 5Blue 6Violet 7Grey 8White 9
    • 25First Color > first digitSecond Color > second digitThird Color > Power of 10Fourth Color > Tolerance (gold +5%, silver +10%, no color +20%)2.8 BUZZERThe “Piezoelectric sound components” introduced herein operate on an innovativeprinciple utilizing natural oscillation of piezoelectric elements. These buzzers are offered in lightweight compact sizes from the smallest diameter of 12mm to large Piezo electric sounders.Today piezoelectric sound components are used in many ways such as home appliances, OAequipment, Audio equipment telephones etc. And they are widely applied for example in alarms,speakers, telephone ringers, receivers, beep sounds etc.PIEZO ELERTRIC BUZZER TYPES OF BUZZER
    • 26PIEZO ELECTRIC BUZZER CIRCUITOSCILLATING SYSTEMBasically the sound source of a piezoelectric sound component is a piezoelectricdiaphragm. A piezoelectric diaphragm consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate which haselectrodes on both sides and a metal plate (Brass or stainless steel). A piezoelectric ceramic plateis attached to a metal plate with adhesives. Figure shows the oscillating system of a piezoelectricdiaphragm. Applying D.C voltage between electrodes of a piezoelectric diaphragm causesmechanical distortion due to piezoelectric effect. For a misshaped piezoelectric element, thedistortion of the piezoelectric element expands in a radial direction.STRUCTURE OF PIEZOELECTRIC DIAPHRAGM2.9 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD:Printed Circuit Board is used for housing components to make a circuit. A PCB acts as abase. It is used as it provides compactness, simplicity of servicing and ease of interconnection.
    • 27There are single-sided, double sided and double sided with plated through hold (PYH) types ofPCBs.The PCBs are made up of either phenolic paper based material or Glass epoxy material.Both materials are available as laminate sheets with copper cladding.PCBs have a copper cladding on either one or both sides. In both types of PCBs, this isdone by pasting a thin copper foil on the board during the curing process. PCBs are prepared insizes of 1-2 meter wide and up to 2 meter long. The thickness of the PCBs is 1.42 to 1.8 mm.The copper deposited on these PCBs is about 0.2mm thick and weighs an ounce per square foot.Printed Circuit Board
    • 28CHAPTER 33.1 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION1. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop2. The following fig will appear3. Click on the Project menu from the title bar4. Then Click on New Project
    • 295. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in your own foldersited in either C: or D:6. Then Click on Save button above.7. Select the component for u r project. i.e. Atmel…8. Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel9. Select AT89C51 as shown below
    • 3010. Then Click on “OK”11. The Following fig will appear12. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly “NO”13. Now your project is ready to USE14. Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option “Source group 1” as shownin next page.
    • 3115. Click on the file option from menu bar and select “new”16. The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by double clicking on itsblue boarder.
    • 3217. Now start writing program in either in “C” or “ASM”18. For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension “. asm” and for “C” basedprogram save it with extension “ .C”19. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on “Add files to Group Source”
    • 3320. Now you will get another window, on which by default “C” files will appear.21. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file22. Click only one time on option “ADD”23. Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.
    • 3424. If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously.25. The new window is as follows26. Then Click “OK”
    • 3527. Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port as shown in figbelow.28. Drag the port a side and click in the program file29. Now keep Pressing function key “F11” slowly and observe.30. You are running your program successfully.
    • 38CHAPTER 44.1 RESULTSThe circuit gives an exact simulation of switching of electrical appliances with the phoneas a mobile-remote. Using this circuit model we are able to switch four devices connected to it.The circuit works extremely well for four devices although we can always enhance it forimplementing switching up to eight devices.4.2 DISCUSSIONOur circuit, the “Auto Dialer Home Security System” is an excellent device forcontemporary home security and messaging system. The exact circuit for AC current devicesneeds to have an external power supply. Further we can use the same circuit for up to eightdevices using the same IC. The relays used in the circuit are electro-mechanical and therefore itmay sometimes cause malfunctioning. For this purpose we can use newer Optocoupler that donot need a physical connection between the circuit and the controlled device. In that mechanisminfra-red light ray is used between the actual base circuit and the device.4.3 CONCLUSIONThis device prototype which we have designed on an elementary level for exploring thevarious ranges of possibility for the security of home and instant messaging in terms of anyunusual mishappening has stood with complete accuracy in terms of operation, delay inactivation, environment sustainability. The device works excellently well under simulatedconditions. The actual circuit based on this model will definitely prove to be a landmark successin the field of home security and office security.
    • 394.4 SCOPE OF FUTURE ENHANCEMENTSOur circuit model is the first step towards the new enhancements in wide ranging securityissues pertaining to various field from military to personal home security. Since we havedesigned only a prototype to confirm the righteous way in which we are proceeding forimplementing our designs and ideas, hence we leave every possible situation for futureenhancements. Those few possible enhancements in the configuration of the circuit that willbring about excellence are. Since we have implemented only two sensors for fire and intrusion sensing, hence we canimplement more sensors approximately up to 6 for e.g. Water level indicator, sensor todetect any leakage of gas, we can also interface with fax machine & computer to senseany incoming fax or email etc. A further enhancement which we can make is that we can use microprocessorAT89S52&8086 instead of AT89C2501 for extending our range of security issues. In place of the traditional electro-mechanical relays, we can use contemporary Opto-couplers. They are operated through infra red light rays. When a command for switchingis keyed in by the caller, the Opto- couplers will be activated by the circuit and only thedesired device is switched on. The device may be interfaced with a computer connected to a gsm modem. Thus, it ispossible to create a software simulation of the device.
    • 40CHAPTER 45.1 REFERENCESa) BOOKS REFERED Jillman J & Halkias C Jivan S. Parab Ron Manchini Ramakant A. Gaekwadb) SOFTWARE USEDPCB Designing SoftwareSimulation software for Microcontroller AT89C51Simulink software for circuit designing and analysisVirtual Studio For Programming of GSM modem.c) WEBSITES REFERED1. www.atmel.com2. www.pantechprojects.com3. www.fairchildsemi.comd) EXPANSESS.No. Component Name Quantity Price (Rs.)1 Micro Controller (AT89C2051) 1 1502 Op-Amplifier (LM324N) 1 503 GSM Modem 1 30004 Sensors(IR&FIRE) 1 205 Three terminal Voltage regulator 1 356 IC 20&14 Pins Connector 1 107 Buzzer 1 20
    • 418 Serial mail connector 1 359 2 Pin Header cable 1 810 Soldering Iron 1 6011 Variable Registers 2 14Total 3402Rest of Components are Provided by College