LEADERSHIP THEORIES :TRAIT THEORIESBEHAVIOURAL THEORIES –KURT LEWINTANNENBAUM & SCHMIDTPRESENTED BY,JINU MARY VARGHESE &BLESSY MARIAMMA PHILIP1ST YEAR MBA STUDENTSMACFAST COLLEGETHIRUVALLA
LEADERSHIP : DEFINITIONLeadership is a process whichby anindividual influence a group ofindividualto achieve a common goal.
GROUPING OF LEADERSHIP THEORIES Trait Theory of Leadership Behavioural Theory ofLeadership Situational Theory ofLeadership Transformational Theory ofLeadership
TRAIT THEORIES●Traits are distinctive characteristicsthatdistinguish leaders from non-leaders● Trait Theory seeks to determinepersonal characteristics of an effectiveleader .●It points out that the personal traits orpersonal characteristics of a person make
Early Trait Theoriesidentified: Physical characteristics(height, appearance) Personality characteristics(extrovert) Skills and abilities (intelligence)
RECENT RESULTS ON TRAITS After being rejected as a basis foridentifying leaders ,trait theories have hada revival.Some studies have identified these traits:Intellectual ability: Analyse the situation accuratelyandtake decision accordinglyMotivation: Inspire and influence the followersSelf confidence: It will motivate his/her followers and
Objectively and fairness: It make a leader honest,fair,impartial, and unbiased Imagination : Ability to visualize trends andadopt theright course of action to achieve the result Initiative : A leader should take the initiative tostartactivities on time . Knowledge : Information that know about theachievement or goal by the leader.
Limitations of Trait Theory It assumes leadership as an inbornquality There is no quantitative tool to measure atrait or a traits Personal traits form only a very small partof leadership A particular trait or traits may help aleader to successfully manage aparticular situation .But he /she may failsin other situation.
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIPKURT LEWIN THEORY Kurt Lewin set out to identify differentstyles of leadership. While furtherresearch has identified more specifictypes of leadership, this early study wasvery influential and established threemajor leadership styles.
THREE LEADERSHIP STYLESAutocraticDemocraticLaissez-Faire
AUTOCRATIC:Leader makes decisions withoutreference to anyone elseHigh degree of dependency on theleaderCan create de-motivation and alienationof staffMay be valuable in some types ofbusiness where decisions need to bemade quickly and decisively
DEMOCRATIC: Most effective leadership style Democratic leaders offer guidance togroup members, but they also participatein the group and allow input from othergroup members. Improves the sharing of ideasand experiences within the business Group members feel engaged in theprocess and are more motivated andcreative.
LAISSEZ-FAIRE● Leaders offer little or no guidance to groupmembers and leave decision-making up togroup members● This style can be effective in situations wheregroup members are highly qualified in anarea of expertise,● It often leads to poorly defined roles and alack of motivation.i.
MODEL OF DELEGATIONAND TEAM DEVELOPMENT shows the relationship betweenfreedom that a manager gives to ateam, and the level of authority usedby the manager. teams freedom is increased, somanagers authority decreases. both teams and managers develop
7 LEVELS OF DELEGATEDFREEDOM 1. Manager takes decision and announces it reviews options in light of aims, issues, priorities etc decides the action and informs the team of the decision. manager will consider how the team will react, but the teamplays no part in decision making.2. The manager decides and then sells thedecision to the group Makes the decision explains the reason for the decision to the team Emphasizes on positive benefits of the decision
3. The manager presents the decision withbackground ideas and invites questions. presents the decision with background ideas. team is invited to ask questions and discuss the aim of sucha decision enables them to understand its depth4. The manager suggests a provisionaldecision and invites discussion about it. discusses and reviews provisional decision with the teamand decide enables the team to have an idea about the final decision team contributes in decision making motivating than the previous level
5. THE MANAGER PRESENTS THE SITUATIONOR PROBLEM, GETS SUGGESTION, THENDECIDES. presents the situation along with options to the team. team is encouraged and expected to offer ideas andadditional inputs and discuss implications on eachpossible course of action. decides which option to be taken. high and specific involvement of the team because theyhave more knowledge and experience than the manager6. The manager explains thesituation, defines parameters and asks theteam to decide. effectively delegated responsibility to the team manager may or may not choose to be a part of the teamwhich decides. manager controls risks according to the constraints he
7. THE MANAGER ALLOWS THE TEAM TOIDENTIFY THE PROBLEM, DEVELOP OPTIONSAND DECIDE ON THE ACTION, WITHIN THEMANAGERS RECEIVED LIMIT. extreme level of freedom the team is given responsibility for identifying and analysing the problem process of resolving it developing and assessing options developing implications deciding and implementing the course ofaction
TANNENBAUM AND SCHMIDT CONTINUUM ISOFTEN SHOWN AS A SIMPLE GRAPH:
The behavioral theory cannot justify why aparticular leadership behavior is effective inone case and fails in the other case. This theory does not recognize the traits ofleaders. Certain traits may make a successfulleader.